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Assumptions. That you all have at least used Excel in the past and understand the basic skills like opening and saving a file. Understand the content and the rationale involved in applied behavior analysis.. Data Terminology. Abscissa = x axisOrdinate = y axisConditions = phasesBaseline = measures of behavior that occur naturally prior to an interventionIntervention = treatment or intervention condition designed to influence behavior.

graphing student data using microsoft excel

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**1. **Graphing Student Data Using Microsoft Excel Jim Wright, Ed. S.
Kennesaw State University
Bagwell College of Education The original purpose of this course is to support the KSU Special Education Graduate students in using Excel to analyze their observational data as part of the Behavior Analysis course. Although, I have had several other requests to present this workshop for K-12 teachers and within our College of Education.The original purpose of this course is to support the KSU Special Education Graduate students in using Excel to analyze their observational data as part of the Behavior Analysis course. Although, I have had several other requests to present this workshop for K-12 teachers and within our College of Education.

**3. **Data Terminology Abscissa = x axis
Ordinate = y axis
Conditions = phases
Baseline = measures of behavior that occur naturally prior to an intervention
Intervention = treatment or intervention condition designed to influence behavior Dependent Variables = behavior
Independent Variables = interventions
Functional Relationship = exists when interventions have been systematically replicated one or more times.

**4. **Data Collection Sheets “Systematic Scraps”

**5. **How do you currently create your data collection sheets? Scraps of paper?
Microsoft Word?
Microsoft Excel?
Examples… Although each of these may be functional, if you are trying to increase your productivity and streamline your process, Microsoft Excel deserves consideration. Since it can generate data collection sheets for paper-based classroom use, it can then serve as the data storage location using a copy of the same form, and ultimately using the features of Excel to analyze and graph the student data.
Although each of these may be functional, if you are trying to increase your productivity and streamline your process, Microsoft Excel deserves consideration. Since it can generate data collection sheets for paper-based classroom use, it can then serve as the data storage location using a copy of the same form, and ultimately using the features of Excel to analyze and graph the student data.

**6. **Basic Data Sheet for Event Recording Example of a Data sheet created in MS Word.Example of a Data sheet created in MS Word.

**7. **Time Sampling Data Sheet This data sheet was also probably done in MS Word.This data sheet was also probably done in MS Word.

**8. **Interval Recording Data Sheet Same format, probably a word document. What’s the downside of using Word vs. ExcelSame format, probably a word document. What’s the downside of using Word vs. Excel

**9. **Data Collection Sheets An example of a Basic Data sheet done in MS Excel. What are the advantages?An example of a Basic Data sheet done in MS Excel. What are the advantages?

**10. **Analyzing Our Data Now that you have some ideas on how to collect data, Excel can help us analyze and visualize that data.

**12. **What is the Mean?
The mean is simply the average of a group of numbers.

**13. **Question 1 What was the average test score on Quiz 1?
Statistical Function = Mean

**14. **Easier way to find the mean in Excel Excel Steps:
Click in the cell where you want the mean to be displayed.
Click the fx to open up the Functions box.
Select the AVERAGE Function.
Select the cells you want to average.
Click OK.
In this example, you are collecting data on how many vocabulary words one student correctly identifies during a spelling activity. After 5 sessions with the student, you want to determine the average number of words identified correctly.
Let’s calculate the mean for Alison together then you can practice one on your own. Feel free to use your handout as we go through and make notes to help yourself later… Click the file on your desktop named Excel Behavior Examples. Once that opens, please be sure you are on the worksheet titled MEAN.In this example, you are collecting data on how many vocabulary words one student correctly identifies during a spelling activity. After 5 sessions with the student, you want to determine the average number of words identified correctly.
Let’s calculate the mean for Alison together then you can practice one on your own. Feel free to use your handout as we go through and make notes to help yourself later… Click the file on your desktop named Excel Behavior Examples. Once that opens, please be sure you are on the worksheet titled MEAN.

**15. **What is the Median? The midpoint of the range numbers that are arranged in order of value.
The median height of your class is the height of the student who is in the middle of this arrangement.

**16. **Example of Median

**17. **What is the Range? Range is the difference between the highest and lowest values.

**18. **Finding the Range Put the values in ascending order – SORT
Subtract the smallest value from the largest value = Range

**19. **How would you calculate the range? Excel Steps:
Highlight your values
Go to DATA > Sort > Ascending
Use the subtraction formula to subtract the smallest value from the largest value.
EXAMPLE FORMULA
=(c3-c9)

**20. **it is the typical (standard) difference (deviation) of an observation from the mean
think of it as the average distance a data point is from the mean, although this is not strictly true

**21. **Graphing Our Data

**22. **Selecting the Best Graph Type There are a ton of ways to represent data visually.
Not all of them are equally effective when it comes to your specific data.

**23. **
Best Display for Alison’s Vocabulary Words?

**24. **Visual Representation #1 Pie charts are used to display the sizes of parts that make up some whole Pie charts are used to display the sizes of parts that make up some whole

**25. **Visual Representation #2 Bar graphs consist of an axis and a series of labeled horizontal or vertical bars that show different values for each bar. Note: These numbers do NOT necessarily make up the whole like the pie chart. Bar graphs consist of an axis and a series of labeled horizontal or vertical bars that show different values for each bar. Note: These numbers do NOT necessarily make up the whole like the pie chart.

**26. **Visual Representation #3 A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary depending on one another. A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary depending on one another.

**27. **Graphing Data – AB Design Line Graph From the Graphing Data Spreadsheet, click on the AB Design Worksheet.

**28. **Entering the Data Caution:
The way you enter your data is critical to how the data will be represented in the graph.
Click on the Worksheet ? Graphing Event Data
Let’s first look at a visual graph of Alison’s Event DataLet’s first look at a visual graph of Alison’s Event Data

**29. **Steps to Entering the Data Practice Activity
Step 1:
Highlight the Notations
of Occurrences C9:C18 They need to enter their data at this pointThey need to enter their data at this point

**30. **Click on the Chart Wizard Icon Select Line Chart
Then PRESS and HOLD to VIEW SAMPLE
If you like this chart type Click NEXT

**31. **Chart Wizard Step 2
The data range should reflect the cell references for the data you want to graph.

**32. **Chart Wizard Step 3
Chart Options enables you to title your chart, include the legend, data table and data labels as you prefer.

**33. **APA Style Selections for Step 3 Title Tab
Don’t title the chart through the wizard (use text boxes later)
Title the Category x axes and the Value y axis
Axes Tab
Check Category x-Axes = Automatic
Check Value y-Axes
Gridlines
De-select any check boxes (don’t show gridlines)
Legend
Don’t Show Legend
Data Labels
Don’t Show Data Labels
Data Table
Don’t Show Data Table

**34. **Chart Wizard Step 4 Select the placement for your graph as either:
Object in a worksheet (with your data)
Object in a new worksheet (on a new worksheet)

**35. **Your Graph Should Resemble Does your chart look similar to this?Does your chart look similar to this?

**36. **Customizing Your Graph We aren’t quite finished according to the preferences of APA we need do a little customizing of our graphs.We aren’t quite finished according to the preferences of APA we need do a little customizing of our graphs.

**37. **Remove the Gray Background Double click on the shaded background of the graph to bring up the PATTERNS MENU
Under the BORDERS MENU – Select NONE
Under the AREA MENU – Select NONE Start by:Start by:

**38. **Inserting Phase Labels Click once on the TEXTBOX icon on the drawing toolbar
Click on the area of your graph where you want to label a data phase.
Type in your data phase title
Click outside the graph and textbox area to complete this process. Now, we need to go back and insert phase lables.Now, we need to go back and insert phase lables.

**39. **Drawing the Line Between Phases Use the line tool on the Drawing toolbar.
Your mouse will turn into a crosshair
Click where you wish to start the line, then drag to where you want the line to stop.
We are getting closer, now we need to draw the phase divider line(s)We are getting closer, now we need to draw the phase divider line(s)

**40. **Question or Concerns?

**41. **Resources APA Style Manual
Alberto, P. A. & Troutman, A.C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Brightman, H.J., (1999) Data analysis in plain English with Microsoft Excel. Pacific Grove CA, Brooks/Cole Publishing.
Carr, J. E., Burkholder, E.O., (1998). Creating single-subject design graphs with Microsoft Excel. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(2), 245-251.