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GG-105: An illustrated voyage through our Solar Fall, 2007 Professor Klaus Keil Office hours in POST 509B: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10:00 - 11:00 a.m.

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GG-105: An illustrated voyage through our Solar Fall, 2007 Professor Klaus Keil Office hours in POST 509B: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10:00 - 11:00 a.m. Our star, the Sun, showing structure in its surface (“granules”, and a major solar flare.

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slide1

GG-105: An illustrated voyage through our Solar

Fall, 2007

Professor Klaus Keil

Office hours in POST 509B: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10:00 - 11:00 a.m.

slide3

Our star, the Sun, showing structure in its surface (“granules”, and a major solar flare

slide10

Earth’s Changing Climate

Carbon dioxide

Ozone Hole

Climate Records

slide11

The Moon, our neighbor in space, has large impact basins (mare) filled with black volcanic basalt flows.

The crater with the pronounced ejecta rays at the bottom of the image is Tycho

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The Apollo spacecraft over the Moon, showing the dark, basaltic mare and the light, anorthositic highlands. Planet Earth in the background.

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Apollo 11, first landing on the Moon.

There is no atmosphere on the Moon, yet the flag appears to be blowing in the wind; it is supported by a rod on the top!

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Size comparison of Earth, Mars and the Moon: Mars is “in-between” Earth and Moon in size and in many of its properties

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The first color image of the surface of Chryse Planitia on Mars obtained in 1976 by the Viking Lander. The surface soil is red, because when basalt weathers, red iron oxide forms, just like in Hawaii.

The color was calibrated by the known color of the cable in the foreground on the Viking Lander.

Notice the reddish, rather than blue, sky. This results from red dust blown into the thin Martian atmosphere by wind storms.

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Possible Water on Mars: Past and Present?

Ancient river valleys

Recent gullies

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Asteroid Eros, with landing site of the spacecraft NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) indicated

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Cut and polished slab of a chondritic meteorite, a fragment of a broken-up undifferentiated, primitive asteroid. White = metallic Fe,Ni; gray = silicates. Diameter of slab ~ 6 cm.

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Cut, polished, and etched slab of an iron meteorite, a fragment of the core of a broken-up, differentiated (melted) asteroid, showing the Widmanstätten structure and a round inclusion of troilite, FeS. Longest dimension ~ 10 cm.

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Cut, polished, and etched slab of a pallasite, a fragment from the core - mantel boundary of a broken-up, differentiated (melted) asteroid. Longest dimension ~ 8 cm.

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Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System.

The “Big Red spot” is a gigantic hurricane.

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Jupiter’s moon Io, volcanologically the most active object in the Solar System.

The unusual color is due to sulfur, ejected by volcanoes (the dark objects are volcanic calderas).

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The Huygens Probe of the Cassini spacecraft diving into the atmosphere of, and landing on, Saturn’s moon Titan

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