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Fuels Workshop. May 2, 2005. California Environmental Protection Agency. Air Resources Board. Agenda. Introduction Topics ( presentation by ARB and Others ): Additives Silver-Corrosion Inhibitors Gasoline CaRFG3 Predictive Model Update Permeation Emissions Estimate Test Methods

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Presentation Transcript
Fuels workshop l.jpg

Fuels Workshop

May 2, 2005

California Environmental Protection Agency

Air Resources Board


Agenda l.jpg
Agenda

  • Introduction

  • Topics (presentation by ARB and Others):

    • Additives

      • Silver-Corrosion Inhibitors

    • Gasoline

      • CaRFG3 Predictive Model Update

      • Permeation Emissions Estimate

      • Test Methods

      • CARBOB Model Validation

    • Diesel

      • Lubricity

      • Biodiesel

  • Other Topics?

  • Open Discussions

  • Closing Remarks


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Topics:Additives


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Additives

Overview

  • The problem

    • Fuel Sending Unit Failures

  • Actions Taken

  • Silver Corrosion Inhibitors


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Additives

Fuel Sending Unit Failures

  • Failures

    • Widespread Failures in the Northeast and Gulf Coast in 2004

  • Failures Caused by Corrosion

  • Corrosion Caused by Elemental Sulfur in Gasoline

    • Traces of reactive sulfurs (i.e hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans) act synergistically


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Additives

Actions Taken

  • ASTM adopted Silver Corrosion Standard and Silver Strip Test

  • Refineries are examining their operations

  • Test batches of gasoline

    • Additize as necessary

    • Correct refinery operations

  • Improve new fuel sensors


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Additives

Silver Corrosion Inhibitors

  • Chemistry/Properties

  • Treat Rates

  • Causes Engine Deposits


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Additives

Engine Deposits

  • At the maximum recommended dosage rate, engine deposits can increase

  • Adequate levels of detergent additive can mitigate deposit forming tendency of corrosion inhibitors


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Additives

Findings

  • Anticipate no problem with the current recommended use of silver corrosion inhibitors

  • Refinery use is intermittent

  • Need to monitor


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Additives

Proposed ARB Staff Advisory

  • Monitoring Program

  • Inclusion of Additive in Certification Test Fuel


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Additives

Certification Test Fuels

For future gasoline certifications:

  • Silver corrosion inhibitor will be a required component of the certification test fuel

  • Silver corrosion inhibitor is added at the maximum recommended treat rate

  • Exception for oil companies not planning to use silver corrosion inhibitors


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Topics:Gasoline


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Gasoline

CaRFG3 Predictive Model Update

  • New Data Set Sources:

    • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

    • CRC E67 Study conducted by CE-CERT, UC Riverside

    • Other ?

  • Availability?


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Gasoline

Permeation

  • In 1999, ARB staff learned that ethanol in gasoline increases evaporative emissions through a process known as permeation

  • Permeation is when fuel migrates through the soft fuel system found on motor vehicles

  • At the 1999 Hearing, the Board directed staff to conduct permeation study and report back


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Gasoline

Permeation Test Program

  • In 2002, the CRC and ARB co-funded permeation study

  • Results:

    • Ethanol fuel higher than MTBE on all vehicles and higher than non-oxy on almost all vehicles

    • 65% or 1.4 grams/day more than MTBE gasoline

    • 45% or 1.1 grams/day more than non-oxygenated gasoline


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Gasoline

Permeation Emissions Increase

  • Study results do not directly provide the emissions impact of permeation

  • Vehicle activity and fuel temperature data must be integrated to provide an appropriate temporal and spatial distribution of emissions

  • Staff receiving public comments on permeation emissions draft report


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Gasoline

How to Deal with the Hydrocarbon Emissions Increase from Ethanol Use?

  • Hydrocarbon emissions increase well into the foreseeable future

    • New vehicle standards help

    • Slow turn over of fleet

  • Report back to the Board later this year

    • Better estimate of ethanol permeation impact on emissions

    • Measures to mitigate the impact


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Gasoline

What’s Next

  • The CRC is proceeding with a second stage of the test program

  • Two additional vehicles: LEV II and PZEV

  • Two additional fuels: 10% ethanol and a higher aromatics fuel

  • E-85 will also be tested on an flexible fueled vehicle


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Gasoline

Test Methods


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Gasoline

CARBOB Model Validation

  • CARBOB regulation approved by Board April 25, 2001

  • CARBOB regulation allows refiners to certify blends without having to do hand blends of ethanol

  • The Board directed staff to validate the CARBOB model using Phase 3 RFG

  • Refiners have submitted their data

  • Expect work to be finished by the end of the summer


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Gasoline

Measured vs. Predicted T50


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Topics:Diesel





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