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FTT 308 Introduction to Broadcast Journalism Gary Sieber Introduction What is “News”? Introduction What is “News”? Dictionary says: 1) New information about anything. 2) Recent happenings. 3) Reports of such events, collectively. 4) A newspaper or broadcast news program. What Is News?

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FTT 308 Introduction to Broadcast Journalism

Gary Sieber


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Introduction

  • What is “News”?


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Introduction

  • What is “News”?

  • Dictionary says:

    • 1) New information about anything.

    • 2) Recent happenings.

    • 3) Reports of such events, collectively.

    • 4) A newspaper or broadcast news program.


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

    • Interest (regardless of importance)


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

    • Interest (regardless of importance)

    • Controversy


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

    • Interest (regardless of importance)

    • Controversy

    • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”)


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

    • Interest (regardless of importance)

    • Controversy

    • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”)

    • Timeliness


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

    • Interest (regardless of importance)

    • Controversy

    • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”)

    • Timeliness

    • Proximity


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

    • Interest (regardless of importance)

    • Controversy

    • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”)

    • Timeliness

    • Proximity

    • Celebrity


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What Is News?

  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness:

    • Importance (to the greatest # of viewers)

    • Interest (regardless of importance)

    • Controversy

    • The Unusual (“Man bites dog!”)

    • Timeliness

    • Proximity

    • Celebrity

    • Caught on Tape!


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Introduction

  • What is “News”?

  • Some alternative notions:

    • “News is what people talk about during coffee breaks.”


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Introduction

  • What is “News”?

  • Some alternative notions:

    • “News is what people talk about during coffee breaks.”

    • “News means carrying on and amplifying the conversation of people themselves.”

      – James Carey, Columbia University.


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Introduction

  • What is “News”?

  • Some alternative notions:

    • “News is what people talk about during coffee breaks.”

    • “News means carrying on and amplifying the conversation of people themselves.”

      – James Carey, Columbia University.

    • “News is more than a mere collection of facts -- News means telling stories.”


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NewsCenter 16 45.9%

Prime 17.5%

Access 8.8%

Late Fringe 6.6%

Daytime (9a-4p) 5.5%

Today Show 4.6%

Olympics 4.6%

Early Fringe (4-5pm) 3.0%

Sports 2.2%

Infomercials 1.4%

TOTAL 100%

Fiscal Year % of Revenue


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News Revenue By Program

  • NewsCenter 16 @10/11pm(M-F) 24.4%

  • NewsCenter 16 Morning Show(M-F) 22.3%

  • NewsCenter 16 @ 6pm(M-F) 20.2%

  • NewsCenter 16 @ 5pm (M-F) 11.9%

  • NewsCenter 16 Saturday Morning 6.5%

  • NewsCenter 16 @ 10/11pm (Sat/Sun) 4.6%

  • NewsCenter 16 @ 5:30pm (M-F, Win.) 4.0%

  • NewsCenter 16 @ Noon (M-F) 2.5%

  • NewsCenter 16 Sunday Morning 1.8%

  • NewsCenter 16 @ 6pm (Sat/Sun) 1.7%


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Introduction

  • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular)


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Introduction

  • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular)

  • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University sociologist:

    • Radio: “The alerting medium.” Radio’s effectiveness comes from the immediacy of electronic communication.


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Introduction

  • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular)

  • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University sociologist:

    • Print (incl. Newspapers): “The informing medium.” Print has the unique ability to handle complexity and detail that the electronic media cannot. It also has the luxury of time to assemble coherent and meaningful analyses of events.


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Introduction

  • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular)

  • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University sociologist:

    • Television: “The involving medium.” Television engages the emotions of viewers in a way that no other medium can. It combines the effects of pictures, sound, narrative, and electronic immediacy.


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Newsroom Organization and Structure


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Newsroom Organization and Structure


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Newsroom Organization and Structure


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Newsroom Organization and Structure


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Newsroom Organization and Structure


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Newsroom Organization and Structure


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Newsroom Organization and Structure


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Typical TV Station Departments

  • Production

  • Promotion

  • Engineering

  • Sales

  • Programming

  • Accounting

  • Management


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16 mm Film

  • Portability

  • Ease of maintenance

  • Softer “feel”

  • Splice-and-tape editing

    • Difficulty with archive re-edits

    • Audio popping

  • Non-reusable medium

  • No electronic output


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Function of Producer

  • No satellite coordination

  • No IFB communication

  • No concern about suitability of live material

  • Mostly stacking and timing

  • Not generally considered a management track position.


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Emergence of ENG and videotape

  • Originally very bulky - not very portable

  • Electronic output for liveshots

  • Ease of editing (electronic, not splicing)

  • Harder “feel” - sharper edges, clarity

  • CCD led to improved low-light images

  • No processing required

  • Reusable medium


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Electronic News Gathering (ENG)

Microwave signal

“line of sight”


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Electronic News Gathering (ENG)


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Satellite News Gathering(SNG)

Speed of light =

186,000 mi./sec.

1/4 sec. delay between

sender & receiver

22,300 miles

(each way)


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Satellite News Gathering(SNG)

  • Geosynchronous Orbit

S

D

D

S

x

Earth


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Satellite News Gathering (SNG)

  • Transponder = “transmitter / responder”

    • multiple units on satellites that each receive, amplify, & retransmit telecommunications

  • Window = slot of transponder time reserved for use by purchaser

  • Uplink / Downlink

  • C-Band Ku-Band

  • “Bird” = “Satellite” (K2, Westar 3, etc.)


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“Being Told” vs. “Being There”

Viet Nam War

2-3 Days Elapsed

Event

Message

  • Many Gatekeepers

  • Importance of Anchors

  • Time for Analysis & News Judgment

  • Loss of Immediacy

Photog/Rept.

L.A.-

Developer

Producer

Editor

Ex. Prod.

N.Y. -

News Dir.

Producer

Ex. Prod.

Anchor

Editor


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“Being Told” vs. “Being There”

Iraq War

Real Time - No Delay

Event

Message

  • No Gatekeepers / Filters

  • “Anticipation of News” - Not News Itself

  • Increased Importance of Correspondents

  • Participants Rather Than Observers

  • Immediate & Engaging, But Not Necessarily Informing.

Photog/Rept.


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Writing for Broadcast

Not as easy as it looks

. . . Or sounds.


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Let’s Write a Haiku

  • Traditional Japanese poetry

  • 17 syllables total: 5-7-5

  • Doesn’t have to rhyme

  • Usually has some reference to one of the seasons of the year (but doesn’t have to for our exercise).


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Haiku

All that remains of those brave warriors' courage-these summer grasses

  • Basho

    Haiku Master


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Why Haiku?

  • It is similar to writing broadcast news copy:

    • Written on short deadline.

    • Can say a lot in a very short span of time.

    • Demands an economy of words (17 syllables!).

    • Leaves room for only the most important ideas.

    • Requires precision and accuracy.

    • Effectiveness depends on the sound of the words as well as the meaning.

    • Must be read out loud..


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Writing: Broadcast vs. Print

  • PrintBroadcast


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Writing: Broadcast vs. Print

  • PrintBroadcast

  • Information processedInformation processedby the eyeby the ear


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Writing: Broadcast vs. Print

  • PrintBroadcast

  • Information processedInformation processedby the eyeby the ear

  • Limited spaceLimited time


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Writing: Broadcast vs. Print

  • PrintBroadcast

  • Information processedInformation processedby the eyeby the ear

  • Limited spaceLimited time

  • Unlimited reviewOne-pass-through medium


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Writing: Broadcast vs. Print

  • PrintBroadcast

  • Information processedInformation processedby the eyeby the ear

  • Limited spaceLimited time

  • Unlimited reviewOne-pass-through medium

  • Detailed/FormalConversational


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Inverted Pyramid

Most Important

Lead sentence:

Who, What, When,

Where, Why,

& How

5 W’s + H

Least Important


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Writing for Broadcast

  • Economy of Words

  • Straight-line Meaning

  • Sounds Good

  • Passes the “So What?” Test

  • Familiar Terms

    • (Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis)

Do Not “Write Down” to Your Audience!


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How Not to Writefor Broadcast

The Elkhart County Parks Board today has a better idea what needs to be done to shore up the Goshen Dam.

An engineer’s report recommends covering the rock-filled mesh gabions with a grout.

The study also calls for working on the earthen bank between the dam and the mill race to retard erosion...


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How Not to Writefor Broadcast

The county is also waiting for a department of natural resources report to find out what work will be needed on the spillway itself.

Parks officials anticipate the D-N-R will recommend redoing the face of the dam… pressure grouting inside the structure… and installing a permanent stilling basin to fight erosion downstream...


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How Not to Writefor Broadcast

There’s no estimate at this time how much the work will cost… or when the D-N-R report will be complete.


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Or How About aHealth News Story?...

In health news today…

Stem cell research is pointing scientists in a new direction concerning cardiovascular disease.

Researchers from Emory University and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute compared levels of endothelial progenitor


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Or How About aHealth News Story?...

cells in forty-five men and found the lowest levels had the highest risk for developing the disease.

The two worst common forms of cardiovascular disease are heart attack and stroke.

The study can be found in the New England Journal of Medicine.


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Take Two Aspirin

And in related health news…

Emory researchers have also established a link between two classes of AIDS drugs and cardiovascular disease risk.

The study finds two forms of anti-retroviral therapy may alter the way the body metabolizes triglycerides, or blood fats.


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Take Two Aspirin…

Researchers studied men and women who took either protease inhibitors or drugs called “N-N-R-T-I-S” and compared levels of a triglyceride marker to volunteers not on the therapy.

They found all patients on the drugs had elevated levels of the triglyceride marker.


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Take Two Aspirin…

Experts say further study is needed to confirm these results, but this finding could mean anti-retroviral therapy elevates the risk of cardiovascular disease.

This study is being presented today at the 10th conference on retroviruses and opportunistic infections in Boston.


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Peanuts Anyone?...

A new study is yielding good news for parents of children with peanut allergies… research suggests some patients may eventually outgrow the allergy.

The study of 80 children with established peanut allergies found that more than half had no reaction when exposed to the nuts.


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Peanuts Anyone?...

But two of those 64 had suspicious reactions after eating peanuts again.

Experts say the findings suggest that in some patients, the allergy may come and go.. And recommend kids diagnosed with peanut allergy be re-tested every year or two.


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Peanuts Anyone?...

This study was conducted at Johns Hopkins children’s center and is published in this month’s issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.


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President Who?...

President Bush is making the last stop in his five-nation African tour in as many days, with a visit to Nigeria this morning.

President Bush arrived in the Nigerian capital Saturday morning to a ceremonious welcome.

Bush was greeted by Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo, who


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President Who?...

has been at the forefront of resolving regional disputes in Africa.

The two heads of state are expected to discuss the situation in Liberia and the possibility of the United States contributing peacekeeping troops to help bolster a multi-national African force already in the war-torn West African nation.


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7 Parts of Speech

  • V

  • A

  • N

  • C

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs

  • A

  • N

  • C

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • A

  • N

  • C

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives

  • N

  • C

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • N

  • C

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns

  • C

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • C

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions(Careful! - Lengthy)

  • A

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions(Careful! - Lengthy)

  • Adverbs

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions(Careful! - Lengthy)

  • Adverbs(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • P

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions(Careful! - Lengthy)

  • Adverbs(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Pronouns

  • P


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7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions(Careful! - Lengthy)

  • Adverbs(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Pronouns(Careful! - Clarity)

  • P


7 parts of speech76 l.jpg

7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions(Careful! - Lengthy)

  • Adverbs(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Pronouns(Careful! - Clarity)

  • Prepositions


7 parts of speech77 l.jpg

7 Parts of Speech

  • Verbs(A journalist’s mortar)

  • Adjectives(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Nouns(A journalist’s bricks)

  • Conjunctions(Careful! - Lengthy)

  • Adverbs(Careful! - Objectivity)

  • Pronouns(Careful! - Clarity)

  • Prepositions(Careful! - Lengthy)


Verbs l.jpg

Verbs


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Verbs

  • Verb = A word that expresses an action or a state of being.


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Verbs

  • Verb = A word that expresses an action or a state of being.

  • Action Verbs: run, walk, hit, throw, etc.


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Verbs

  • Verb = A word that expresses an action or a state of being.

  • Action Verbs: run, walk, hit, throw, etc.

  • Verbs of Being: am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being (any form of “to be”) + words like “appear” or “feel.”

    • Joey Falco is under arrest.

    • Rachel Warford appears ill despite this interesting lecture.


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Action Verbs


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Action Verbs

  • Action Verbs can be Transitive or Intransitive:

    • Transitive verbs require a Direct Object.

      • They express an action that is performed on someone or something:

        • Estella Ganger hit her roommate.

        • Leo Ferrine throws the baseball.


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Intransitive Action Verbs

  • Intransitive Verbs do not take a Direct Object.

    • They express actions that do not require a recipient:

      • Katie sings in the choir.

      • Colleen walks in the woods.

      • Vince writes beautifully.


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Transitive Action Verbs


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Voice

  • All Transitive Verbs Have 2 Voices:

  • Active Voice

    • Subject performs the action:

    • “I hit you.”


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Voice

  • All Transitive Verbs Have 2 Voices:

  • Active Voice

    • Subject performs the action:

    • “I hit you.”

  • Passive Voice

    • Subject receives the action:

    • “You were hit by me.”


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Advantages of the Active Voice

  • Straight-line meaning.

    • Listeners less likely to confuse who did what.

  • Economy of words.

    • Saves time while promoting clarity.

  • More accurate reporting.

    • Forces the writer to include vital information.

  • More appealing to the ear.

    • Sounds more natural; conversational.


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Components of the Passive Voice

  • A verb phrase (at least 2 words)

  • Some form of “to be” in the verb phrase:

    • “The national anthem wassung by Katie Antonacci.”

  • The subject of the sentence is the receiver, rather than the performer of the verb’s action:

    • “Thomas McCall is being arrested for swimming in the reflecting pool.”


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Changing Passive Voiceto Active Voice

  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the direct object the subject of the sentence:

    • “Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.”


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Changing Passive Voiceto Active Voice

  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the direct object the subject of the sentence:

    • “Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.”

    • “Professor Sieber will drive Lisa insane.”


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Changing Passive Voiceto Active Voice

  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the direct object the subject of the sentence:

    • “Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.”

    • “Professor Sieber will drive Lisa insane.”

  • Identify the Missing Actor:

    • “The airplane was landed during the storm.”


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Changing Passive Voiceto Active Voice

  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the direct object the subject of the sentence:

    • “Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.”

    • “Professor Sieber will drive Lisa insane.”

  • Identify the Missing Actor:

    • “The airplane was landed during the storm.”

    • “Father Jenkins landed the airplane during the storm.”


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Changing Passive Voiceto Active Voice

  • Change the Verb:

    • “The bell will be sounded at noon.”


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Changing Passive Voiceto Active Voice

  • Change the Verb:

    • “The bell will be sounded at noon.”

    • “The bell will ring at noon.”


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Changing Passive Voiceto Active Voice

  • Change the Verb:

    • “The bell will be sounded at noon.”

    • “The bell will ring at noon.”

  • Simply Drop the “to be” Verb:

    • “The spotlight wasfocused on downtown.”

    • “The spotlight focused on downtown.”


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Passive Voice FAQs

  • Is the passive voice grammatically incorrect?

    • No, but it is a construction better suited for print than broadcast writing. The active voice is used more frequently in everyday conversation.

  • Is it ever O.K. to use the passive voice?

    • Sure, in a few rare cases. “He was born in 1973.” “She was injured in the fire.”


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout troop.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout troop.

  • The lost earrings were found by the sales clerk.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout troop.

  • The lost earrings were found by the sales clerk.

  • Henrietta carried the injured dog to the pet hospital.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout troop.

  • The lost earrings were found by the sales clerk.

  • Henrietta carried the injured dog to the pet hospital.

  • Mrs. Jennings was given a blue ribbon by the judges for her pie.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The Bartons’ car crushed our flower bed.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The Bartons’ car crushed our flower bed.

  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The Bartons’ car crushed our flower bed.

  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.

  • The news director’s point was not missed by the reporter.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The Bartons’ car crushed our flower bed.

  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.

  • The news director’s point was not missed by the reporter.

  • A mistrial was declared in the case.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • The Bartons’ car crushed our flower bed.

  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.

  • The news director’s point was not missed by the reporter.

  • A mistrial was declared in the case.

  • Teachers were taught a thing or two themselves.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • He turned to the federal system after being rejected in his appeals by the state.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • He turned to the federal system after being rejected in his appeals by the state.

  • Firefighters were called to the scene just before noon.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • He turned to the federal system after being rejected in his appeals by the state.

  • Firefighters were called to the scene just before noon.

  • Scenes of the historic meeting were watched by viewers around the world.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • He turned to the federal system after being rejected in his appeals by the state.

  • Firefighters were called to the scene just before noon.

  • Scenes of the historic meeting were watched by viewers around the world.

  • The pilot was let go and the escapees sped away.


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You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)

  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours.


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You Make the Call(Active or Passive?)

  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Passive)


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Don’t Get Tense

  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Passive)

  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Passive)

  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Active)


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Don’t Get Tense

  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Passive)

  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Active)

  • Police have arrested a South Bend woman for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Passive)

  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Past Tense / Active)

  • Police have arrested a South Bend woman for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Present Perfect Tense)


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Police arrest a South Bend woman for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Police arrest a South Bend woman for leaving her children locked in a car for eight hours. (Historical Present Tense)


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Present Tense

    • Terrail Lambert likes this class.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Present Tense

    • Terrail Lambert likes this class.

  • Historical Present Tense

    • Terrail Lambert drives in three runs as the Irish beat North Carolina.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Present Tense

    • Terrail Lambert likes this class.

  • Historical Present Tense

    • Terrail Lambert drives in three runs as the Irish beat North Carolina.

  • Present Perfect Tense

    • Terrail Lambert has driven in 54 runs so far this season.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Past Tense

    • Terrail Lambert drove in three runs in Sunday’s win over North Carolina.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Past Tense

    • Terrail Lambert drove in three runs in Sunday’s win over North Carolina.

  • Past Perfect Tense

    • Terrail Lambert had driven in three runs before the Tar Heels knew what day it was.


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Don’t Get Tense

  • Past Tense

    • Terrail Lambert drove in three runs in Sunday’s win over North Carolina.

  • Past Perfect Tense

    • Terrail Lambert had driven in three runs before the Tar Heels knew what day it was.

  • Future Tense

    • Terrail Lambert will drop this class if I keep using his name.


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Types of TV News Stories

  • Reader (RDR):

    • Less than 30 seconds in length.

    • Used only when pictures are not available (breaking story, e.g.).

    • “Talking Head” (yuk!)


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Types of TV News Stories

  • Reader (RDR):

    • Less than 30 seconds in length.

    • Used only when pictures are not available (breaking story, e.g.).

    • “Talking Head” (yuk!)

  • Anchor Voice-Over (AVO):

    • 20-40 seconds in length.

    • Used as a quick update to earlier story, or “video headline” of less important story.


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Types of TV News Stories

  • Anchor Voice-Over w/ Soundbite (AVO/SOT - “Sound On Tape”):

    • 20-60 seconds in length.

    • Provides greater detail, comments from witnesses, officials, or “natural sound.”

    • Soundbites generally less than 10 seconds.

    • Don’t be redundant getting into or out of soundbites.

    • Provide in-cues and out-cues for video & bites.


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Types of TV News Stories

  • Package (PKG):

    • An edited, self-contained videotape report of a news event or feature, complete with pictures, soundbites, voice-over narration, and natural sounds. The package is a form of narrative story telling with a beginning, middle, and ending.


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Types of TV News Stories

  • Package (PKG):

    • The backbone of contemporary TV newscasts.

    • Great advantage: Precision of editing pictures, sound, and narration.

    • 50 seconds - 2:00 + in length. Depends on the overall quality of the story (importance, visual appeal, strong writing, etc.).

    • Provides depth and complexity.

    • Demonstrates firsthand knowledge.


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Types of TV News Stories

  • Live Shots (LIVE):

    • Immediacy, Energy, Pace.

    • Often used as a “wrap-around” for packages.

    • Can include interviews.

    • Can be a remote AVO(/sot) by reporter.

    • Scripted in advance (most of the time).

    • Bad idea to memorize script verbatim.


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Script Writing

  • Use the right half of the page for script.

  • Use the left half of the page for technical instructions (ENG #, running time, etc.)

  • Write in ALL CAPS.

  • Double space

  • Indent every sentence as if it were a new paragraph.


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Search Strategy


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis

  • Identification of Potential Contributors


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis

  • Identification of Potential Contributors

    • Informal Sources


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis

  • Identification of Potential Contributors

    • Informal Sources

    • Institutional Sources


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis

  • Identification of Potential Contributors

    • Informal Sources

    • Institutional Sources

    • Library & Database Sources


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis

  • Identification of Potential Contributors

    • Informal Sources

    • Institutional Sources

    • Library & Database Sources

  • Interviews


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis

  • Identification of Potential Contributors

    • Informal Sources

    • Institutional Sources

    • Library & Database Sources

  • Interviews

  • Selection and Synthesis


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Search Strategy

  • Question Analysis

  • Identification of Potential Contributors

    • Informal Sources

    • Institutional Sources

    • Library & Database Sources

  • Interviews

  • Selection and Synthesis

  • Message


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Search Strategy(Informal Source Hazards)

  • Impressionistic

  • Opinion Based

  • Fragmentary

  • Possibly Inaccurate or Self-Serving

  • Informal sources are best used as STIMULATORS, providing the FIRST word in a story, not the LAST word.


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Search Strategy(Inst. Source Hazards)

  • Institutional Bias:

    • U.S. Dept. of Defense vs. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom

  • Selective Disclosure of Information


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Ethics vs. Law

  • Law and Ethics are different subjects.

    • Vast majority of media ethics cases have no legal context; BUT, almost all media law cases are dispatched without the slightest consideration of ethical principles.

    • Law is one source of moral precepts, but not the only (or necessarily best) source. Other sources: Religion, Societal Values, Cultural Norms.


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Ethics vs. Law

  • Law is a limited source of ethical values.

    • Often thought of as a “floor,” below which activities are considered immoral. BUT:

      • Are all legal behaviors ethical?

      • Are all illegal behaviors unethical? (Thoreau’s concept of Civil Disobedience; Ghandi; MLK).

      • “mala en se” vs. “mala prohibita”


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Guiding Principles for Journalists

  • Seek the Truth and Report It.

  • Minimize Harm

  • Act Independently

  • Be Accountable


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Quantifying Ethics?

HIGH HIGH

LOW HIGH

Range of

Acceptable

Actions?

Minimize

Harm

LOW LOW

LOW HIGH

Seek Truth & Report It


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Quantifying Ethics?

HIGH HIGH

LOW HIGH

Range of

Acceptable

Actions?

Be

Accountable

LOW LOW

LOW HIGH

Act Independently


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The Potter Box

JUDGMENT?

I. Define the

Situation

II. Examine

Values

IV. Decide

Loyalties

III. Consult

Principles

SOCIAL

ANALYTICAL

WHAT?WHY?


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The Potter Box-- Ethical Principles

  • Aristotle’s “Golden Mean” (4th Cent. B.C.):

    • “Moral virtue is the appropriate location between two extremes.”

Shamelessness Modesty Bashfulness

Stinginess Generosity Wastefulness


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The Potter Box-- Ethical Principles

  • Immanuel Kant (“Critique of Practical Reason” - 1788):

    • “Act on that maxim which you will to become a universal law.” (Categorical Imperative).

      • Certain actions (lying, cheating, stealing) are always wrong. The circumstances don’t matter.

      • Deception by the media, even to get a good story, cannot be excused or tolerated.

      • An absolutist position.


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The Potter Box-- Ethical Principles

  • John Stuart Mill (“Principle of Utility” - mid-1800’s):

    • “Seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.” Or: “The good of the many outweighs the good of the few -- or the one.” (Star Trek: The Wrath of Khan).

      • Focus on consequences rather than the inherent goodness or evil in the act itself.

      • Stealing from the rich to give to the poor is okay.

      • A relativist position.


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The Potter Box-- Ethical Principles

  • John Rawls (“Veil of Ignorance” --contemporary egalitarian philosophy):

    • “Justice emerges when negotiating without social differentiations.”

      • Fairness is fundamental to justice & ethics.

      • Behind the veil of ignorance, no one knows how they will emerge when stepping back into real life.

      • Independence, toughness, & persistence are good qualities for the journalist; cynicism, boorishness, and callous insensitivity are not.


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The Potter Box-- Ethical Principles

  • The Golden Rule (Judaeo-Christian tradition & nearly all the world’s religions):

    • “Love your neighbor as yourself.”

    • “Do unto others as you would yourself be treated.”


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Moral Development


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Seminarians/Philosophers

Medical Students

Practicing Physicians

Journalists

Dental Students

Nurses

Graduate Students

Undergraduate Students

Veterinary Students

Navy Enlisted Men

Orthopedic Surgeons

Adults in General

High School Students

Prison Inmates

Junior High Students

Moral Development Scores For Various Professionals


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Theories of Moral Development

  • “Tabula Rasa” = “Blank Slate”

    • Children start with no innate understanding of right and wrong.

    • If they are taught good things, they will turn out good.

    • If they are taught bad things, they will turn out bad.


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Theories ofMoral Development

  • Lawrence Kohlberg (Harvard Psychologist - 1963). “Model of Justice.”

  • People develop in their conception of moral reasoning through a specific series of sequential stages.

  • Based on how people understand justice.

  • Primary motivating force is internal psychological conflict. Current stage of moral reasoning no longer meets needs.


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Kohlberg’s Stages ofMoral Development

  • LEVEL ONE: Pre-conventional or Egocentric Stages.

    • Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation.

      • Right = obedience to authority figures and avoidance of punishment.

    • Stage 2: Instrument and Relativity Orientation.

      • Right = meeting one’s own needs & desires, with little regard for others.


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Kohlberg’s Stagesof Moral Development

  • LEVEL TWO: Conventional or Social Stages.

    • Stage 3: Interpersonal and Concordance Orientation.

      • Right = Social approval; being liked and thought of as a good person.

    • Stage 4: Law & Order Orientation.

      • Right = accord w/ laws & rules; obedience not from fear of punishment, but to maintain social order.


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Kohlberg’s Stagesof Moral Development

  • LEVEL THREE: Post-Conventional or Principled Stages.

    • Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation.

      • Right = harmony w/ social principles behind laws; see a higher moral authority than the rule-makers, and will challenge laws out of step w/ deeper social values & principles.


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Kohlberg’s Stagesof Moral Development

  • LEVEL THREE (cont’d.)

    • Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles Orientation.

      • Right = adherence to one’s personally articulated yet universal ethical principles. Not followed by all of humanity, but all rational and logical thinkers would conclude that these are worthy principles to follow. (Martin Luther King, Jr., Mahatma Ghandi).


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Bob Miller Crash

A woman is in serious condition with head injuries after her car darted across traffic and crashed into a store window today in south bend.


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Bob Miller Crash

This afternoon, a local female driver loses control and crashes into the front window of Bob Miller’s appliances.


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Bob Miller Crash

A local woman is being treated for head injuries and is in serious condition at Memorial Hospital this evening.

The woman was the cause of a serious car accident at Bob Miller’s Appliances earlier this afternoon.


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Bob Miller Crash

A speeding car interrupted shoppers at a South Bend business when it crashed through the front window shortly after noon today.


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Bob Miller Crash

A woman wreaks havoc at Bob Miller’s appliances early this afternoon when she loses control of a speeding stolen car and crashes ti through the South Bend store’s window.


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Bob Miller Crash

A speeding car veers off of the road and crashes into a South Bend business, leaving its driver injured.


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The American Legal System

  • Divided (broadly) into two types of cases:

    • Criminal law.

      • Involves the commission of an offense against the state (murder, robbery, assault, larceny, etc.).

      • Burden of proof: Beyond a reasonable doubt.

      • Goals:

        • Punish the wrongdoer.

        • Deter others from similar behavior.

        • Provide retribution (justice) for the victim.

        • Rehabilitate the offender.


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The American Legal System

  • Two broad types of cases (cont’d).

    • Civil Law:

      • Involves one party suing another for a wrong that has been committed .

      • Burden of proof: Preponderance of evidence.

      • Goals:

        • Compensation, not just punishment; the retrieval, to the extent possible, of what was lost. (Compensatory damages).

        • In some cases, deterrence. (Punitive damages).


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Law of Torts

  • A “tort” is a wrongful or harmful act committed by one party against another.

  • Tort law may be viewed as the backbone of civil litigation.

  • “When one person sues another, and no contract is involved, it is a matter for the law of torts.”


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3 Kinds of Torts

  • Intentional Torts:

    • Oldest form of tort liability, and similar to crimes in the criminal law.

    • Assault, battery, trespass, and wrongful death (murder) are examples of intentional torts.

    • But compensation to the victim is the primary goal, not punishment to the offender.


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3 Kinds of Torts

  • Negligence Torts:

    • Bread & butter of tort law.

    • Banana peel “slip & fall” lawsuits, traffic accidents involving personal injury, etc., etc.

    • Negligence: “Failure to act as an ordinary, reasonable person would act under the circumstances.”


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3 Kinds of Torts

  • Strict Liability Torts:

    • Accidents that are “nobody’s fault.”

    • The result of an activity considered fraught with unusual risk (making TNT, for example).

    • Now applies to most manufacturing concerns -- “product liability.”

    • “When there are public hazards inherent in defective products that reach the market, responsibility for injury must be fixed where it will most effectively reduce the hazard.”


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New York Times v. Sullivan

  • Among the most important Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century:

    • The starting point for all discussion of modern libel law in the United States.

    • A collision of the federal judiciary with the states.

    • The role of the media as an agent for social change.

    • The slow, painful struggle for legal and social equality for African Americans.


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New York Times v. Sullivan

  • Social/Historical context:

    • A last desperate attempt by southern states to suppress the message of civil rights activists.

    • NY Times v. Sullivan was a political tool, not an attempt to challenge the 1st Amendment freedoms of the press.

    • Like many lawsuits, Times v. Sullivan had unforeseen consequences. By happenstance, it had a broad impact on American journalism, though that was not its original intent.


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New York Times v. Sullivan

  • Alabama (1960):

    • Libel was a strict liability tort.

      • If the product was proved to be defective -- even minor deviations from the literal truth -- then the publisher was strictly liable for the injuries caused.

      • State libel laws were not weighed against federally guaranteed 1st Amendment press freedoms.

      • Damages from libel were “presumed.” Publishers could be forced to pay huge monetary judgments w/out any actual proof that the plaintiff suffered demonstrable harm.


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New York Times v. Sullivan

  • Alabama (1960) - “Kangaroo Court?”

    • Trial lasted 3 days.

    • Judge Walter B. Jones - “The Confederate Creed.”

    • Seating by race. Racial epithets routinely used.

    • “…the white man’s justice… will give the parties, regardless of race or color, equal justice under law.”

    • 394 of 650,000 copies of NYT went to Alabama; only 35 copies to Montgomery Co.

    • 6 witnesses said ad was “of and concerning” Sullivan.

    • $500,000 award to Sullivan; 10 more cases waiting - seeking $5,600,000;5 against CBS for $1,700,000.


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NY Times v. Sullivan (‘64)Majority (6-3) opinion by Justice William Brennan

  • Made state libel laws (most of which were strict liability torts) subject to a constitutional First Amendment test:

    • “…Against the background of a profound national commitment to the principle that debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust and wide-open, and that it may well include vehement, caustic and sometimes unpleasantly sharp attacks on government and public officials.”


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NY Times v. Sullivan (‘64)Majority (6-3) opinion by Justice William Brennan

  • Established the standard of “actual malice” in cases involving public officials. Actual malice defined to mean:

    • Knowledge that a published defamatory statement was false, OR

    • Reckless disregard of whether the statement was false or not. (More than mere negligence).

      • Reckless disregard means to transgress to the point of being sinful: A deliberate lie or at least serious doubts as to the truth of the statement.


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NY Times v. Sullivan (‘64)Majority (6-3) opinion by Justice William Brennan

  • Absent proof of actual malice, public officials were prevented from recovering damages. Times v. Sullivan did not grant the media absolute immunity from libel suits brought by public officials, but it created a very difficult standard of proof for such plaintiffs.


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Saturday Evening Post v. Butts, A.P. v. Walker (‘67)

  • Extended the actual malice standard to “public figures” in addition to public officials.

  • Public figure = “a public man in whose public conduct society and the press have a legitimate and substantial interest.”


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Rosenbloom v. Metromedia (‘71)

  • Extended NY Times v. Sullivan actual malice standard to private figures involved in issues of public interest, like crime.


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Gertz v. Welch (‘74)

  • Reversed the Rosenbloom decision.

  • Gave courts wider leeway in determining whether someone was a public person.

  • Gave state courts the right to decide what standard of liability should be used in cases brought by private persons. (Negligence, Strict Liability, or Actual Malice).

  • No such thing as a “false opinion,” BUT facts disguised as opinion are actionable.


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Herbert v. Lando (‘79)

  • Subjected the media’s decision making processes to the scrutiny of “discovery” under the rules of civil lawsuits.


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Harte-Hanks Communicationsv. Connaughton (‘89)

  • Actual malice can be proven by errors of omission: A publisher or broadcaster who deliberately decides not to pursue information which could have refuted a defamatory allegation.


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Milkovich v. Lorain Journal (‘90)

  • Did away with the Gertz v. Welch ruling that opinion is protected. Any statement is actionable, even if stated in the form of an opinion, if it includes facts that can be proven true or false.


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Masson v. New Yorker Mag.& Janet Malcolm (‘91)

  • Use of quotation marks indicates a nearly verbatim transcript of what someone said. The deliberate alteration of a plaintiff’s words does not equate w/ knowledge of falsity... UNLESS it results in a material change in the statement’s meaning.


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Cohen v. Cowles Media Co. (‘91)

  • Breaking a promise of anonymity to a confidential source can be legitimate grounds for a breach of contract lawsuit.


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Eppie Chang v. WNDU

  • Anonymous Source

    • Called on weekend

    • Reporter checked story on Monday

    • Story ran on Wednesday


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Eppie Chang v. WNDU

  • Items different from court documents:

    • “Idustrial espionage” vs. “Misappropriation of trade secrets”

    • Glucometer

    • “Chang intended to sell the secrets for one million dollars” vs. “The assets of such a company would be worth an estimated one million dollars”


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Eppie Chang v. WNDU

  • Chang lived in Portage, Michigan

  • Worked at Miles Laboratories in Elkhart, Indiana

  • Sued WNDU for $65-million

  • Sued Notre Dame for $65-million

  • Sued the Elkhart Truth for $65-million

  • Filed in Federal Court – South Bend


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Eppie Chang v. WNDU

  • Lessons learned:

    • Truth is a defense

    • A little diligence would have prevented a world of headaches

    • Be prepared to discuss your story (and sources) with your editor/manager

    • Discovery process is a pain

    • Geography matters


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Invasion of Privacy(4 types)

  • Intrusion

  • Publicizing Private Matters

  • Publicizing in a False Light

  • Appropriation


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Intrusion

  • Wrongful use of tape recorders, microphones, cameras, and other electronic recording or eavesdropping devices.

  • Trespassing.

  • Misrepresentation to gain access to a place or person on private property.

  • ABC 20/20 - Food Lion; 60 Minutes - Charter Hospitals


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Publicizing Private Matters

  • Sensational disclosures about a person’s health, sexual activity, social or economic affairs, etc.

  • Events that occur in public, no matter how intimate or embarrassing, are not actionable.


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Publicizing in a False Light

  • Closely related to libel law because it must include an element of falsity.

  • Most often occurs when trying to condense or fictionalize actual events (docudramas or thinly disguised biographies, for example).

  • Most states require proof of intent by publisher to create a false impression -- not accidental.


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Appropriation

  • Use of a person’s name, likeness, image, or personality without permission for commercial purposes or for one’s own benefit.

  • Celebrity impersonators (voice or image).

  • Current and past news events or biographies of legitimate public interest are exceptions.


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Invasion of Privacy Defenses

  • Consent

    • Expressed or tacit consent.

    • Generally required for commercial purposes.

    • Generally not required for newsgathering activities.


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Invasion of Privacy Defenses

  • Newsworthiness

    • Public Figures: Must accept even unwelcome publicity, even if it involves private life (to the extent necessary in covering activities of public interest). The public has a continuing interest even after a public figure retires.

    • Private Figures: Exposure of private affairs offensive to ordinary sensibilities and that have no legitimate public interest. BUT, unwitting participation in a news event is not actionable.


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Invasion of Privacy Defenses

  • Constitutional Privilege (Truth). Used in False Light cases.

    • Publication of accurate information on matters of public interest, even if the information is private, is protected constitutionally from false light claims.


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Types of TV News Stories

  • Package (PKG):

    • An edited, self-contained videotape report of a news event or feature, complete with pictures, soundbites, voice-over narration, and natural sounds. The package is a form of narrative story telling with a beginning, middle, and ending.


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Writing Packages

  • Elements of a Package:

    • Focus or Commitment

    • Beginning:

      • Anchor (or Studio) Intro

      • Package Lead:

        • Visual Lead (+ nat. sound)

        • Narrative Lead

    • Middle:

      • 3-4 Main Points (stay focused!)


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Writing Packages

  • End:

    • Final visual (+ nat. sound)

    • Final narrative

  • Anchor Tag:

    • A concluding thought

    • A bit of information not included in the package

    • Provides transition to next story.


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Writing Packages

  • Anchor Intro:

    • Write it first, not last!

    • Must pass the “so what” test. (WGAS)

    • Must include enough information to let viewers know why they should watch (2-3 sentences minimum); but not so much that they already know the outcome.

    • Can be written as “hard lead” or “soft lead.”


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Writing Packages

  • Focus:

    • In one simple, vivid, declarative sentence:

      • What is this story about?

      • Why should viewers care?

      • What is the essential message your story should convey?

      • What should viewers remember?


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Writing Packages

  • Visual Lead:

    • Most important or compelling video.

    • Item most likely to be remembered later (along with closing visual).

    • Natural Sound is critical!

    • Make me care. Make me want to pay attention.


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Writing Packages

  • Narrative Lead and Script:

    • Don’t force it. Be patient.

    • Write sparsely.

    • Don’t state the obvious – let pictures and sound help you tell the story.

    • Know when to shut up.

    • Communicate with photographer/editor.

    • Stay focused.


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Writing Packages

  • Anchor Tag:

    • Don’t repeat – unless it’s vital.

    • Use information that’s interesting, but perhaps slightly off focus.

    • Write with an eye toward future developments.

    • Provide closure / conclusion / transition.


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The End


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Ethics vs. Law

  • Law is generally morally neutral.

    • Procedural rather than substantive.

    • Based on private negotiation (legislative process) rather than public edict.

    • In many cases, laws change from month to month, or year to year.

    • Ethics, on the other hand, implies consistency over long periods of time.


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Ethics vs. Law

  • Law rarely imposes duties or suggests virtues (i.e., “correct behaviors”).

    • Laws draw lines between permissible and impermissible acts, but differences are not necessarily based on moral principles.

    • Laws can prohibit or mandate behavior through the power of enforcement (fines, sanctions).

    • Law is primarily a system for resolving disputes.


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Ethics vs. Law

  • Legal system accepts one form of reasoning -- Precedent and the Socratic Method.

    • Ethics & law share an assumption that decisions should be based on reasoning, but the modes of reasoning may be far different.

    • Ethical debates arise from conflicting moral assumptions; legal debates arise from conflicting procedural interpretations.


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Ethics vs. Law

  • Ethics has to do with the underlying assumptions upon which decisions are made. These assumptions can include feelings about the nature of humankind, whether people are inherently good or bad, and the nature of our relationship to one another.


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