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Agenda. Content Analysis as a Research Tool.Outcomes of a Content Analysis of 10-years of fraternity/sorority related articles in the Journal of College Student Development (JCSD) and the NASPA Journal.Review selected findings.In small groups, identify missing areas, priorities for future research..

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1. Fraternity/Sorority Research in Student Affairs Journals Over the Last Decade Billy Molasso, Assistant Professor Counseling, Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University

2. Agenda Content Analysis as a Research Tool. Outcomes of a Content Analysis of 10-years of fraternity/sorority related articles in the Journal of College Student Development (JCSD) and the NASPA Journal. Review selected findings. In small groups, identify missing areas, priorities for future research.

3. Why Content Analysis? Love (01) talked about the discourse of our field, guiding our field. In a paper e-mailed to the membership, AFA President Dan Bureau (04) called for AFA to invest in the creation of a research agenda--but noted it can’t be done in isolation. Fraternities/Sororities clearly have problems that need to be solved. Fraternities/Sororities are not as “bad” as many campus administrators believe. How can we improve the fraternity movement without assessing what has been written about them in student affairs literature?

4. Purpose of the Study Identify the major themes and trends in fraternity/sorority research in the student affairs literature.

5. Content Analysis Coding specific acts of ______ in messages. Survey method, but the unit of analysis is not the individual, it is a “document” or “record”. Used for a variety of reasons, most notably how prime time television depicts people of color, violence, and other issues. Expanding as a social science research method specifically about the discourse on a particular topic. For this study, think of it as “summarizing” and “charting” fraternity/sorority related research. Used Neuendorf’s model.

6. Content Analysis

7. Methods Selected the two primary journals of our field, JCSD and the NASPA Journal. Narrowed study to the last decade-Fall, 1994 to Summer, 2004. Did an electronic ERIC search for 5 keywords: fraternity, sorority, Greek, fraternities, sororities. Search only yielded 17 JCSD and 13 NASPA Articles. Went directly to the online repositories for each journal did a full-text search for the 5 keywords. Identified 184 articles in which at least 1 of the 5 keywords were used anywhere in the text of the article. Categorized based on the nature of the article (To what degree are fraternities/sororities represented in the article).

8. Categorization

9. Representation

10. Article Processing Reviewed each article individually, and identified the following information in a database: Coded for major issue of the article (alcohol, cognitive development, etc.). Tone of the article (positive, negative, neither, no difference). Names of authors. Year of publication. Summarized the major fraternity/sorority related finding.

11. Primary Issue Clusters

12. Issue Categorization

13. Tone of Articles

14. Author Contributions

15. When Published

16. So what did they find? “Selected” findings for two of the issue cluster areas.

17. Homogeneity Fraternities/sororities were found to have the highest percentage of Whites as members. (Mayo, Murguía , & Padilla 95) The current sorority recruitment process discouraged African-American women from joining white sororities and promoted separatism. (Schmitz & Forbes, 94) Sororities were the most homogeneous of the student organizations studied. (Winston et al, 97) A woman who veiled suggested “The more hippie students find it very interesting to mix with you. . . . They’re all over it, . . . this global [community] thing. [Whereas] the sorority, fraternity type people have their reservations.” (Cole & Ahmadi, 03) Broido (2000) used an excerpt from an interview about a student expressing the difficulties of confronting racist attitudes in his fraternity.

18. Recruitment Female students joined sororities whose values closely matched their own. (Burnett, Vaughan, & Moody, 96) First generation students were less likely to join. (Pascarella, Wolniak, Pierson, & Terenzini, 03) First-year college women who chose to participate in sorority recruitment were more physically attractive, came from wealthier families, more frequently used alcohol, had a higher need for exhibitionism, and were more willing to attend parties where they may not fit in, compared to first-year college women who did not rush. (Atlas & Morier, 94)

19. A New Avenue Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors New Journal (2 issues in 05-06) Biannual, Online, Peer-Reviewed Journal Distribution of 1,500+ Inexpensive ( Will provide an avenue to deliver research to those who need it most: Staff/Leaders interested in fraternities/sororities.

20. Oracle: Content Summary Issue 1, August, 2005 A Content Analysis of a Decade of Fraternity/Sorority Scholarship in Student Affairs Research Journals?(Molasso) Elements of Credible Research (Eberly) An Exploratory Study of the Experiences of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Fraternity and Sorority Members Revisited?(Case, Hesp,& Eberly) Helping Fraternity and Sorority Members Understand Ritual (Callais) Issue 2, February, 2006 Fake-ID Use Among Fraternity/Sorority Members (Molasso) Gay Males in Fraternities (Trump & Wallace) Online Alcohol Health Education Curriculum Evaluation: Harm Reduction Findings Among Fraternity and Sorority Members (Wall) Definitions of Hazing: Differences Among Selected Student Organizations (Ellsworth) Effects of Fraternity/Sorority Membership and Recruitment Semester on GPA and Retention (Nelson, Halperin, Wasserman, Smith, & Graham)

21. Small Groups In small groups, answer the following three questions: How can our profession better encourage the publishing of research about fraternities/sororities? What specific issues/questions would you prioritize in future research? (Top 3) What specific issues/questions would you not prioritize in future research? (Bottom 3)

22. Questions or Comments?

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