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Dissemination and Adoption of Precision Agriculture. Jenn Scott. Overview. Types of Technology available and in use Adoption Trends Dissemination of information Education of farmers and the Recommended strategies. Technology Available and in Use (4). GPS and DGPS GIS

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Overview l.jpg

  • Types of Technology available and in use

  • Adoption Trends

  • Dissemination of information

  • Education of farmers and the Recommended strategies

Technology available and in use 4 l.jpg
Technology Availableand in Use (4)

  • GPS and DGPS

  • GIS

  • Variable Rate Sensors and applicators

  • Sensors (field, soil, and crop)

  • Guidance Systems

  • Remote Sensing

    • Arial mapping/ satellite imagery

    • Grid soil sampling

    • Soil mapping

    • Yield monitors

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Stages of Adoption

  • Awareness

  • Interest

  • Evaluation

  • Trial

  • Adoption

  • Awareness and the formation of attitudes is influenced by ag producer’s socio-economic characteristics.

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Who is using PA? (3)

  • Corn and Soybean farmers have been the most rapid adopters of PA sensing tech.

  • Use of yield monitors in 1996

    • 30% corn in

    • 25% soybeans

    • 10% wheat

  • Use of geo-referenced soil maps By 2000

    • over 10% of cotton and wheat

    • 17% of soybeans

    • >20% of corn

  • Purdue found that 60% of studies done indicated a positive return for any given PA technology, 10% negative, and 30% mixed.

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In The Corn Belt (2)

  • In 16 states, only 9% utilized some form of PA representing nearly 1/5th of the 1996 harvested acreage

    • 7% grid samples/maps

      • Of these: 70% used sampling/mapping on 64% of their acreage.

      • 60% sampling 2.5 acre grids w/ 43% every 4 yrs.

    • 4% applied fertilizer or lime with VRT

    • 6% yield monitors during harvest

    • 4% used yield monitor info to develop yield maps

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Composite of Average Adopting Farmer

  • Age

    • 70% of adopters were under age 50 (2)

  • Full-time farmers

    • 90% listed farming as their major occupation (2)

  • Technology Savvy

    • Using computerized record systems (2)

  • Educated

    • more education would enhance the ability of the farm operator to utilize these technologies.(1)

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  • Experience

    • older farmers are less likely to invest to due shorter planning horizons (2)

  • Land Tenure

    • Land ownership is widely believed to encourage adoption of technologies. (6)

  • Farm Size

    • Lower unit cost by spreading their fixed investment in PA over more acres -1

  • Early adopters have different attributes than late or non adapters

    • Non adopters are very risk adverse.

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Farm Characteristics

  • Size was found to be positively associated with the adoption of PA technology.(1)

    • Due to substantial human and financial capital resources

    • Probability of having all acreage under PA was also greater.

    • Of the 9% of corn farmers using PA, they controlled 19% of the corn acreage, indication adoption has occurred primarily on the larger farms.

  • Large family farm, very large family farms, and non-family farms account for 61% of production. (8)

  • Over 50% of farms sales were >$250,000(2)

  • 18% grossed <$100,000 in 1996(2)

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Barriers to Adoption to use the technology?(6)

  • Uncertainty in returns due to adoption

  • High fixed cost of investment and info acquisition

  • Lack of demonstrated effects on yield

  • Input use and environmental performance (5)

  • Lack of appropriate service centers and professionals(2)

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Benefits of PA to use the technology?

  • Make more informed management decisions

  • Improve input allocations

  • Be more efficient

  • Lower production costs

  • Improve Crop Yield / Increase profit margin.

  • Reduce chemical and fertilizer costs through more efficient application.

  • Reduce pollution.


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Dissemination of Information to use the technology?(10)

  • So far, info has been targeted towards the “early adopter” producers rather than main stream producers.

  • Only recently have they targeted advisors, crop consultants and dealers.

  • Oriented toward understanding concepts rather than functionality of equipment or software.

  • As PA progresses, the industry will have to produce a range of info for all skill levels.

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Methods of Dissemination to use the technology?

  • Research Publications refereed journals

  • Newsletters

  • Extension Bulletins

  • Industry Guides

  • Internet

  • CD’s


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Teaching PA to use the technology?

  • Teaching PA in one talk or hour lecture is impossible

  • Field Days

  • Conferences and Workshops

  • Internet and web-based classes

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Field Days to use the technology?

  • Allows for learning ways to practically apply technologies and management practices to individual situations.

  • Provides opportunity to become acquainted with what is available

  • Some hands-on access to tech: opportunity to try out field computers, DGPS equip, GPS software, guidance systems and other tech. w/o investing large amounts of money.

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Field Days, cont to use the technology?(12)

  • Connects growers who lack local experts in PA tech with people who can help answer questions and solve problems.

  • Must be carefully planned and organized

    • Multiple sessions for multiple areas

    • Try for smaller group sessions to allow max. learning and visibility.

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Conferences and Workshops to use the technology?

  • Provide the opportunity to focus on PA for one to many days

  • Can provide hands on exercises

  • PA tech isn’t necessarily crop specific, so can use broad based sessions

  • WPAC

  • Assiniboine CC in Manitoba

  • U of N- Lincoln


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Internet and Web-based Classes to use the technology?

  • NCES reports: distance ed. is a more common feature at many post-secondary institutions.

  • Is popular and will be more readily available in the future

  • Ag field has been among the slowest to adopt dist. ed.

  • With the rapid change of info in PA, internet provides the best place for information due to the ability to revise and update material.


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Problems with Internet to use the technology?

  • Majority of ag producers lack internet access

  • Quality and level of service in rural areas can often be poor

  • Users may not be able to take advantage of all online tools despite having “access”

  • Many with internet access don’t have computers that are new enough or fast enough for many programs.

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Internet Access By Region to use the technology?(11)

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Natural Learning Process for PA to use the technology?

  • Learning and understanding the concept of spatial data management, including the importance and value of spatial data.

  • Learning the proper use of sensors makes it possible to obtain intensive sampling of quality info inexpensively.

  • Learning to use a computer and software for mapping. (GIS)


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4. Using info to make improved crop production decisions through assessment of yield variation and determining potential causes.

  • Summarize and interpret data to develop site-specific management plans.

  • Strategic sampling and on-farm trials


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Future of PA Adoption through assessment of yield variation and determining potential causes.

  • Motivation to adopt may come from:

  • Environmental regulations

    • Much of the US corn is grown on or near environmentally sensitive lands which require more intensive management. (aquifers, rivers, lakes, wetlands, etc)

  • Public concern of excessive use of agro chemicals

  • And economic gain from reduced inputs and improved farm management efficiency

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References through assessment of yield variation and determining potential causes.

  • Frenandez-Cornejo,J., Daberkow, S. McBride, W.D. Decomposing the size effect on the adoption of innovations. AgBioForum, 4,2: 124-136.

  • Daberkow, S., McBride, W.D. Adoption rate of Site Specific Crop Management Technologies Among US Corn Growers. Retrieved from internet on April 0, 2004 from: www.eomonline.com/modernagsite/archives/daberkow.html

  • Daberkow, S. Fernandez-Cornejo, J., Padgett, M. Precision Agriculture Adoption Continues to Grow. Agricultural Outlook. November 2002.

  • Zhang, N., Wang, M., Wang, N. Precision Agriculture-a world overview. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 36,2:125-139.

  • Batte, M.T, Arholt, M.W. Precision Farming Adoption and Use in Ohio: case studies of six leading edge adopters. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 38,2 : 124-139.

  • Daberkow, S., McBride, W.D. Farm and Operator Characteristics Affecting the Awareness and Adoption of Precision Agriculture Technologies in the US. Precision Agriculture, 4, 163-177, 2003.

  • www.usda.gov/new/pubs/fbook00/factbook2000.pdf

  • Fiez, T. Providing Precision Farming Education through Conferences and Workshops. Precision Agriculture, 3, 353-358. 2002

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References through assessment of yield variation and determining potential causes.

  • Ferguson, R. B. Educational Resources for Precision Agriculture. Precision Agriculture, 3, 359-371, 2002

  • Pocknee, S. Kvien, C. Web Based Educational Programs In Precision Agriculture. Precision Agriculture, 3, 327-340, 2002.

  • Heiniger, R.W., Havlin, J.L., Kvien, C. Knowles, T. Seeing is Believing: the Role of Field Days and Tours in Precision Agriculture Education. Precision Agriculture, 3, 309-218, 2002.

  • Kitchen, N. R., Snyder, C.J., Franzen, D.W., Wiebold, W.J. Educational Needs of Precision Agriculture. Precision Agriculture, 3, 341-351, 2002.