communications tracking plan development workshops july 9 11 13 2007
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Communications & Tracking Plan Development Workshops July 9, 11 & 13 2007. Communication Reality. WV SB 247 and the Miner Act did not revoke the laws of physics. WV § 56-4 drafted with all the laws in mind. WV § 56-4. Wireless – miner not connected by wire

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Presentation Transcript
communication reality
Communication Reality

WV SB 247 and the Miner Act did not revoke the laws

of physics

WV §56-4 drafted with all the laws in mind

wv 56 4
WV §56-4
  • Wireless – miner not connected by wire
  • Two-way communications to each miner in at least two separate airways
  • Tracking each miner in relation to known points prior and in escapeways after
  • Operators submit Communication/Tracking Plan by July 31, 2007
    • Understand needs and thought through risks
    • Survive accident or be quickly repairable
    • Communication center operator min. red-hat
electro magnetics for miners
Electro-Magnetics for Miners

Enough so you can ask the right questions

… not so much it hurts your head

frequencies wave lengths rates
Frequencies Wave Lengths & Rates

Analog

Digital

Baud Rate = Number of clock cycles per second

Bit Rate = Number of bits transmitted per second

bandwidth
Bandwidth
  • Analog bandwidth is frequency range
  • Digital bandwidth is amount of information in a given amount of time

Voice = 300-3400 Hz

Analog bandwidth = 3100 Hz

Digital bandwidth = 18,600 bps

decibels db
Decibels (dB)
  • Decibels are measure of signal and noise Gain is given by:

#dB = 10 log10 Pout

Pin

  • When negative means loss
losses in wires and cables
Losses in Wires and Cables

Metal Wires & Cable

Fiber Optic Cable

Resistance + Skin Affect

Material Absorption

Splice Losses

Material Scattering Bending Losses

losses in the entry
Losses in the Entry
  • Path loss
    • Increase as square of the distance
  • Other Losses
    • Materials
    • Multi-path
material effects
Material Effects

RF-lucent lets radio waves pass through it without any substantial loss

RF-absorbent allows radio waves to pass but with substantial loss

RF-opaque blocks, reflects, and scatters RF waves

multi path propagation

R= Reflection

D= Diffraction

S=Scattering

Multi-Path Propagation

R

S

D

reflective effects
Reflective Effects

Reflected waves interact to form new patterns

These may not be recognized by the receiver as useful information

ideal waveguide effects
Ideal Waveguide Effects

Confines and guides path of electromagnetic wave

X

2nd

1st

Y

8th

noise effects

Distortion

Noise Effects
  • All communications systems have noise
    • Radio frequency interference (RFI)
    • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
    • Laser noise

Masking

antenna choices
Antenna Choices

Antenna design offers many coverage pattern options

Critical that the correct one is used for each location

leaky feeder antennas
Leaky Feeder Antennas

Propagated

Signal

Internal

Propagation

Internal Wire

Outside Sheath w/openings

transmission modes
Transmission Modes
  • Simplex
    • One direction
  • Half duplex
    • Either direction, but only one way at a time
  • Full duplex
    • Both directions at the same time
rfid radio frequency identification

Software matches Tag ID database

RFIDRadio Frequency Identification

Radio command signal issued from reader

Antenna

Reader

Tag holds unique ID

164B28F34

Signal containing data returned

types of tags
Types of Tags
  • Passive
    • Power scavenged from reader
  • Active
    • Transmitter/ battery in tag

UHF (850 MHz to 950 MHz) – Ranges to 3 meters and high reading speeds

HF (13.56 MHz) – Ranges to 1.5 meters - not susceptible to interference from water or metal

through the earth tte
Through The Earth (TTE)

200Hz-4000Hz

Current Reality

Commercial One-Way w/Text

Off-Axis Reception Problematic

Large Antenna Loops

Non-Permissible Power Levels

Emergency Shelter Option

Greatest Potential

No In-Mine Backbone

medium frequency mf

Current Reality

Prototype Demonstrated

Unknown Safety

Medium Frequency (MF)

300 kHz - 3 MHz

CABLE

BELT

GreatestPotential

Use Existing Metal as Backbone

Interoperability

wi fi mesh nodes

Current Reality

Initial units demonstrated

Limited Node-to-Node Range

Line-of-Sight Only

Handsets not yet commercial

Requires Redundancy & Hardening

Wi-Fi Mesh Nodes

2.4 GHz

GreatestPotential

Wide Bandwidth Flexibility

Interoperability

NODE

leaky feeder vhf
Leaky Feeder (VHF)

150-170 MHz Distributed Antenna System

LEAKY FEEDER

Current Reality

Multiple Installations

Commercial Handsets

Limited Beyond Sight of Feeder

Limited Data Capability

Requires Redundancy & Hardening

AMPLIFIER

Greatest Potential

Available and Upgradeable

Interoperability

leaky feeder uhf
Leaky Feeder (UHF)

400-500 MHz Distributed Antenna System

LEAKY FEEDER

Current Reality

Multiple Installations

Commercial Handsets

Some Beyond Sight of Feeder

Moderate Data Capability

Requires Redundancy & Hardening

AMPLIFIER

GreatestPotential

Available and Upgradeable

Interoperability

leaky feeder enhancements

Current Reality

Limited Installation Experience

Some Needed Devices in Prototype

Leaky Feeder Enhancements

Distributed Antenna System

SPECIALTY

ANTENNA

RADIATING

CABLE

EXTENSION

2ND LEAKY FEEDER RUN

GreatestPotential

Mine Wide Coverage

Multiple Pathways

future technologies survivability
Future Technologies = Survivability

Current Reality

Standard Telecom Practice

Site Specific Best Solution

Interoperability Limited

Device Development Required

Adoptable to Current Technology

GreatestPotential

Multiple Pathways

System Integration

Signal Takes Whatever Survives

tracking where gps won t go

Know the Location

Proximity signal strength

Acknowledgement

Communicate the Location

Dedicated backbone

Shared backbone

Show Information

Map display

Data analysis

Threshold alarms

Tracking Where GPS Won\'t Go

Current Reality

Zone Systems

RFID Active Tag Systems

Ethernet Backbone and

Leaky Feeder Backbone

Signal Triangulation Near

wv 56 4 functionality reviews
WV §56-4 Functionality Reviews

After the evaluation of the documentation submitted and with the recommendation of our technical reviewers the Office of Miner’s Health Safety and Training verifies that _________ hasdemonstrated functionality such as would allow W.Va. underground mining permit holders to meet all or part of their requirements for emergency communications and trackingoutlined in the West Virginia Emergency Rule Governing Protective Clothing And Equipment, §56-4-8 and will be included in the listing of reviewed devices.

Pre-Application Meeting

Application Received

Reviewed

Data Augmentation Requested

Re-Reviewed

Functionality Determination Letter

MSHA IS Approval

active applications
Varis Communications

150-170MHz Leaky Feeder

Kenwood Radios

Digital – 56kbs

Hughes Supply

150-170MHz Leaky Feeder

400-500Mhz Leaky Feeder

Kenwood Radios

Digital – 56kbps

Marco North-America

900MHz RFID Tracking

Leaky Feeder or Ethernet

Hannah Engineering

2.4GHz 802.11 Nodes

VoIP Phones and WiFi Tags

Digital – 11mbps

Matrix Design Group

433 MHz Tag Tracking

Fiberoptic Ethernet Backbone

Leaky Feeder Backbone

Helicomm, Inc (Venture Development)

2.4GHz 802.15.4 Nodes

RS845 Ring of Subnet Controllers

Digital 250kbs

Text Messaging

400-500Mhz RFID Tracking

Active Control Technology

2.4GHz 802.11 Nodes

VoIP Phones and WiFi Tags

Digital 11mbps

2.4Ghz Signal Strength Tracking

MineComm (Pyott Boone Electronics)

150-170MHz Leaky Feeder

400-500Mhz Leaky Feeder

Kenwood Radios

Digital – 56kbps

Mine Site Technology (CSE)

150-170MHz Leaky Feeder

LF Through the Earth

2.4GHz 802.11 Tag Tracking

Mine Radio System

150-170MHz Leaky Feeder

Kenwood Radios

Digital – 56kbps

Ranjant Corporation

2.4 GHz 802.11 Nodes

Wireless Backbone Only

Northern Lights

2.4GHz 802.11 Nodes

Fiber or CAT5 Ethernet Backbone

WiFi Tags and VoIP Phones

Active Applications
quality of communications

Accepted Reception Reporting Systems

Adapted a standard reporting format from ARRL

Quality of Communications

Can you hear me now?”

Turns out not to be a trivial question

Copyright Verizon

quality of reporting
Quality of Reporting

Reporting has been done in distances

Provides limited information

Adopted minimal information requirements for reporting

Example of tabular reporting

ability to relate
Ability to Relate

Still need more information to make design decisions

developing your plan
Developing Your Plan
  • Operators to perfect system design
  • Miners to understand how the systems work
  • Mine Inspectors to ensure adequate coverage
  • Mine Rescue to understand how to contact and track in an emergency

Intended to be used by:

Our Plan

why write a plan
Why Write a Plan
  • To organize your thoughts and identify gaps
  • To provide guidance to those that implement your plan
    • Miners and emergency responders
    • Contractors
  • To demonstrate that you have chosen a workable solution
  • No points off for grammar or spelling

Our Plan

slide39

Tab 2

Tab 3

Tab 4

Tab 5

Tab 1

Emergency Contact Information

39

Our Plan

emergency contact information
Emergency Contact Information

Mine Name

Mine Address

Physical Location

Mine ID – State

Mine ID – MSHA

General Manager/Superintendent Name

Daytime Phone #

Emergency Phone #

Email address

Safety Manager/Director

Daytime Phone #

Emergency Phone #

Email address

Communication System Manufacturer

Communication System Vendor

Emergency Phone #

Email address

Tracking System Manufacturer

Tracking System Vendor

Emergency Phone #

Email address

Our Plan

slide41

Tab 2

Tab 3

Tab 4

Tab 5

Tab 1

Communication-Tracking

System Description

41

Our Plan

description
Description
  • Overview of structure and operations of the final separate or integrated communication/ tracking system(s)
  • Including actions you have or will have to take to meet §56.4 requirements
    • Text description of the components that are currently in place and those that are planned to be added
    • How each contributes to meeting the requirements

Our Plan

coverage
Coverage
  • Explain how your plan will allowing for wireless tracking and wireless two way communications with each miner providing coverage in at least two separate air courses, at least one of which shall be an intake.
  • And for knowing the location of miners and direction of travel at key points in the escapeways, at a minimum at junctions (section, section-submain/mains intersections), so that all options of travel are covered.

Our Plan

survivability
Survivability
  • Explain what has been or will be done to ensure survivability such that the communication-tracking system will be functional after an accident
    • What provisions are made for rapidly re-establishing coverage
    • Maintain communication/tracking after loss of outside power

Our Plan

shelter s
Shelter(s)
  • Description of the communication system that is or will be used in shelters
    • Provisions made to rapidly reestablish communication if lost in the accident

Our Plan

slide46

Tab 3

Tab 2

Tab 4

Tab 5

Tab 1

Communication-Tracking System Operations

46

Our Plan

installation and maintenance
Installation and Maintenance
  • Explain how the communications/tracking system will be:
    • Installed (who and how)
    • Tested (who and how)
    • Maintained (who and how)
      • Provide the manufacturer’s checklists for each type of inspection, routine, relocation, annual, etc

Our Plan

operating instructions
Operating Instructions
  • Provide copies of the operating instructions for each component of the communication-tracking system to be provided for the miner and for emergency personnel

Our Plan

comm center operations
Comm Center Operations
  • Describe the communication center
  • Include procedures for communication center operators covering at least:
    • Monitoring at all times when one or more miners are underground
    • Knowing the location of all miners, in relation to pre-determined points
    • Check-in and check-out procedures for seldom used areas
    • Emergency response actions

Our Plan

slide50

Tab 2

Tab 3

Tab 4

Tab 5

Tab 1

Proof of order and compliance dates

50

Our Plan

proof of order

Only required after approval

Proof of Order
  • Copy of purchase orders to implement plan
    • Communication-tracking equipment
    • Installation
    • Routine and emergency maintenance
    • If in-house then proof of qualified staff
    • Documentation should specify:
      • Order date:
      • Delivery date:
      • Operational Date:

Our Plan

slide52

Tab 2

Tab 3

Tab 4

Tab 5

Tab 1

Training

52

Our Plan

training
Training
  • Explain how miners, supervisors and likely emergency responders will be trained in the use, limitations and inter-operability of communication/tracking system
    • Initial training dates for implementation of the communication-tracking system
    • How communication/tracking incorporated in other required training
    • Where training will be recorded

Our Plan

time line

August

OMHST

Markups

September –

October

Approvals

> WV Communication Plan Approvals >

July 31

Mine Submittal

August –

September

Re-writing

October +

Order-Installation

> MSHA Electrical Approvals >

Time Line

OMHS&T Communications Plan Team

One inspector from each Regional office +

Member(s) of the Approval Review Team

Our Plan

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