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COLOR The Next Dimension Why use color? Color adds information that is often difficult to describe with words Color adds a sense of beauty and excitement otherwise hard to capture But. . . Color illustrations require time, talent, and planning

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COLOR

The Next Dimension


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Why use color?

  • Color adds information that is often difficult to describe with words

  • Color adds a sense of beauty and excitement otherwise hard to capture


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But. . .

  • Color illustrations require time, talent, and planning

  • Color is more difficult to reproduce accurately in print, but more easily in digital media

  • Color is expensive to print, except in large press runs; cost often borne by scientist


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Natural color

  • Captures the true color of the specimen

  • Most common use of color

  • Usually watercolor, gouache, acrylic paints, colored pencil, or mixed media


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Symbolic color

  • Use of standard colors to portray different structures (e.g., red arteries, blue veins, yellow nerves)

  • Often used in medical and/or instructional illustrations

http://catalog.nucleusinc.com/nucleusindex.php?


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Design color

  • Color is used as part of the overall design to communicate information quickly, precisely, and noticeably

http://www.komengreaterlansing.com



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  • Primary colors

  • Irreducible components of color

  • Combinations of the 3 primaries produce entire (infinite) spectrum of color


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Red

Orange

Yellow

Green

Blue

Indigo

Violet

ADDITIVE

primary colors of LIGHT


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ADDITIVE primary colors of LIGHT

RGB color of computer monitors, television, and (approximately) human vision

Green

Yellow

Cyan

Red

Blue

Magenta


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A computer monitor pixel is composed of 3 subpixels (each a tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).


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SUBTRACTIVE tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). primary colors of pigments


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CMYK color of printing tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

SUBTRACTIVE primary colors of TRANSPARENT PIGMENTS/INKS

Yellow

Red

Green

Magenta

Cyan

Blue


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SUBTRACTIVE tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). primary colors of OPAQUE PIGMENTS

Yellow

Orange

Green

Red

Blue

Violet


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ADDITIVE tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). mixture involves the addition of spectral components (light)

SUBTRACTIVE mixture involves the absorption (or subtraction) of spectral components (pigments and dyes)


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Additive tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). and subtractive colors are

COMPLEMENTARY

G

Y

C

R

B

M


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Yellow tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Primary

Red

Blue

Subtractive primary colors

(pigments)


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Yellow tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Secondary

Orange

Green

Red

Blue

Violet


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Yellow tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Tertiary

Yellow-orange

Yellow-green

Orange

Green

Red-orange

Blue-green

Red

Blue

Red-violet

Blue-violet

Violet


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Yellow tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Yellow-orange

Yellow-green

Orange

Green

Red-orange

Blue-green

Color Wheel

Red

Blue

Red-violet

Blue-violet

Violet


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http://www.malanenewman.com/browser_safe_color_wheel.html tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

http://www.realcolorwheel.com/rcwplotter.htm

http://www.corel.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=Corel3/Section/Display&sid=1047024315119&gid=1047024331836&cid=1047023275319

http://www.businesscreatorpro.com/articles/graphic_design_article.php


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Rules of tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Harmony


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Monochromatic tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).


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Analogous tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).


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Complementary tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).


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Split tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

complementary


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Analogous tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

complementary


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Double tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

complementary

tetradic


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Triadic tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).


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Tetradic tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).


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See the “ tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). Color Guide” and “Live Color”

features new to Illustrator CS3


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Qualities of color tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

  • Hue (the named color)

  • Saturation (chroma or tone)

  • Brightness (intensity or value)

  • Temperature

  • Transparency & opacity


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Yellow tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Hue

Orange

Green

Red

Blue

Violet


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Saturation tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

white


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Brightness tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

black


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H tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). ue, saturation, brightness spectrum

http://livedocs.adobe.com/en_US/Photoshop/10.0/WSAAFD9CC8-831E-4593-8694-B39919F72A26.html


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Temperature tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Warm

Cool


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Transparency tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Opacity


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Color Modes in tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). AdobeCS Applications

Illustrator

Photoshop

Grayscale

RGB

HSB

CMYK

Web Safe RGB

Bitmap

Grayscale

RGB

HSB

CMYK

Lab

Web Color


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The “Color Picker” in tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). Photoshop


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Color Spaces and Gamuts tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

L*a*b

Device-independent (L*a*b) and device-dependent (everything else)

http://photo.net/digital-darkroom-forum/00QNAo

http://help.adobe.com/en_US/Acrobat/9.0/Standard/WSFC77A86E-F68E-4906-A42D-6EAF5AB4F675.html

http://www.tasi.ac.uk/advice/creating/colour2.html


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RGB tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). vs CMYK

RGB: colors of computer monitors; larger color gamut than CMYK; colors appear brighter, more vibrant

CMYK: colors of transparent inks in 4 process printing;

smaller gamut; many RGB colors “out of gamut”, cannot be printed in CMYK inks.

CMYK

RGB


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RGB tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). vs CMYK

Orthodoxy: RGB images must be converted to CMYK prior to 4-process printing. Work in CMYK for printing.

NO!: Work in RGB! Larger gamut, more flexibility. Consumer inkjet printers convert to CMYK automatically and do an excellent job (use as reference). Otherwise, use Adobe CS software to convert a copy or let the commercial press do it for you. Adobe CS software gives “out of gamut” warnings when working in RGB.


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Color Management tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

Calibrate your monitor —Use Displays > Color utility in Mac OS System Preferences (for more precision use calibration hardware, e.g., Datacolor’s Spyder3 series or Spyder2express)

Choose a color space in your Adobe CS application — Under the Edit > Color Settings menu. Choose North America Prepress 2 and its default settings, including Preserve Embedded Profiles. Synchronize these settings among your CS applications.

Acquire printer profiles — visit your printer company’s website and download the current printer drivers and/or ICC profiles for your printer/paper combination.

Set a Custom Proof Condition for your printer and paper — View > Proof Setup > Custom and under Device to Simulate select the printer/paper profile you downloaded earlier; now you can View > Proof Colors to see what your document will look like (approximately) in print.

See the CS application Help Guides and the references listed at the end of this presentation for complete directions on calibration, profiles, proofing, etc.


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Techniques tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

  • Colored pencil

  • Watercolor

  • Gouache

  • Acrylics


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Colored Pencil tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

  • Can give excellent textural detail and rich color effects

  • Minimal materials needed

  • Inexpensive

  • Fast

  • Excellent with mixed media


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Surfaces tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). :

  • Illustration board-any surface with good “tooth” and random texture, such as cold-press, 100% rag mat board, cold-press Bristol board, or Kid-finish Strathmore

  • Drafting film-acetate or polyester, matte 1- or 2 sides, e.g. Herculene (K&E)


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Media tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). :

  • Pencils-At least a basic set of 12 pencils representing the primaries through tertiaries:

  • Sanford Prismacolor

  • Sanford Prismacolor Verithin

  • Sanford Prismacolor Watercolor

  • Derwent Studio

  • Faber Castell Polychromos

  • White gouache or acrylic paint


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Tools tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). :

  • Small sable watercolor brush for dry-brushing highlights

  • Eraser-Pink Pearl, etc.

  • X-Acto knife

  • Workable fixative


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Technique tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue). :

  • Transfer pencil sketch using light-hued colored pencil (e.g., non-photo blue), not graphite

  • For brilliant or light colored areas, lay down a base of white. On film, back-paint with white acrylic afterwards

  • Use sharpened pencils to apply tiny, closely placed strokes in any pattern. Do not use stump to blend strokes

  • Begin with middle tones, working towards darks and lights; light colors over darker; lighten with white pencil

  • Combine colors for brilliant effects

  • Avoid overworking or the surface will become saturated (surface becomes shiny)

  • For very bright primary highlights, dry-brush with white acrylic paint

  • Spray finished drawing with workable fixable


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Prismacolor pencils on Cronaflex drafting film. Image was backpainted white, then shadows added with carbon dust on the back of the film. Details were enhanced with knife and graphite pencil. Lady beetle by George Venable.


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Iridescence backpainted white, then shadows added with carbon dust on the back of the film. Details were enhanced with knife and graphite pencil. Lady beetle by George Venable.

Bernand Durin


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Iridescence backpainted white, then shadows added with carbon dust on the back of the film. Details were enhanced with knife and graphite pencil. Lady beetle by George Venable.

Metallic, iridescent, or fluorescent paints do not reproduce in print

Study specimen in fixed position and try to break down the iridescence into individual areas of color

Place brilliant colors adjacent to each other

Use intense colored highlights, not white, and deep blacks next to suddenly emerging colors

Avoid gradual shading, juxtapose lights and darks somewhat sharply


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violet blue backpainted white, then shadows added with carbon dust on the back of the film. Details were enhanced with knife and graphite pencil. Lady beetle by George Venable.

dark emerald green

dark emerald green

black

darkest emerald green

yellow-green highlight

GNSI Handbook


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References and recommended readings: backpainted white, then shadows added with carbon dust on the back of the film. Details were enhanced with knife and graphite pencil. Lady beetle by George Venable.

  • For general information and techniques:

  • The Guild Handbook, chapters 6, 8, 9, 13

  • Wood, chapter 6

  • Leland, N. 1998. Exploring Color, rev. ed.

  • Photoshopand Illustrator Help Guides

  • For color management within the AdobeCS applications:

  • Alspach, T. 2007. Illustrator CS3 Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Indianapolis, Indiana. 711 pp.

  • Blatner, D., C. Chavez, and B. Fraser. 2007. Real World Adobe Photoshop CS3. Peachpit Press. Berkeley, California. 768 pp.

  • Fuller, L.U., and R.C. Fuller. 2007. Photoshop CS3 Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Indianapolis, Indiana. 1164 pp. + CD-ROM

  • Weinmann, E. and P. Lourekas. 2007. Visual Quickstart Guide: Photoshop CS3 for Windows and Macintosh. Peachpit Press. Berkeley, California. 439 pp.

  • Weinmann, E. and P. Lourekas. 2007. Visual Quickstart Guide: Illustrator CS3 for Windows and Macintosh. Peachpit Press. Berkeley, California. 456 pp


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