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CHAPTER 3 Ethics, Privacy and Information Security CHAPTER OUTLINE 3.1 Ethical Issues 3.2 Threats to Information Security 3.3 Protecting Information Resources LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the major ethical issues related to information technology and identify situations in which they occur.

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Chapter 3 l.jpg


Ethics, Privacy and Information Security

Chapter outline l.jpg

3.1 Ethical Issues

3.2 Threats to Information Security

3.3 Protecting Information Resources

Learning objectives l.jpg

  • Describe the major ethical issues related to information technology and identify situations in which they occur.

  • Describe the many threats to information security.

  • Understand the various defense mechanisms used to protect information systems.

  • Explain IT auditing and planning for disaster recovery.

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NASA Loses Secret Information for Years

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Ethical Issues

  • Ethics

  • Code of Ethics

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Fundamental Tenets of Ethics

  • Responsibility

  • Accountability

  • Liability

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Unethical vs. Illegal

What is unethical is not necessarily illegal.

Ethics scenarios

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The Four Categories of Ethical Issues

  • Privacy Issues

  • Accuracy Issues

  • Property Issues

  • Accessibility Issues

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Privacy Issues

How much privacy do we have left?

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You Be the Judge

Terry Childs: Guilty or not Guilty?

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Court decisions have followed two rules:

(1) The right of privacy is not absolute.

Your privacy must be balanced against the

needs of society.

(2) The public’s right to know is superior to

the individual’s right of privacy.

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Threats to Privacy

  • Data aggregators, digital dossiers, and profiling

  • Electronic Surveillance

  • Personal Information in Databases

  • Information on Internet Bulletin Boards, Newsgroups, and Social Networking Sites

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Electronic Surveillance

  • See "The State of Surveillance" article in BusinessWeek

  • See the surveillance slideshow

  • See additional surveillance slides

  • And you think you have privacy? (video)

  • Sense-through-the-Wall

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Personal Information in Databases

  • Banks

  • Utility companies

  • Government agencies

  • Credit reporting agencies

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Social Networking Sites Can Social Networking Sites Cause You Problems

Anyone can post derogatory information about you anonymously.

(See this Washington Post article.)

You can also hurt yourself, as this article shows.

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What Can You Do? Social Networking Sites

First, be careful what information you post on social networking sites.

Second, a company, ReputationDefender, says it can remove derogatory information from the Web.

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Protecting Privacy Social Networking Sites

  • Privacy Codes and Policies

    • Opt-out Model

    • Opt-in Model

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3.2 Threats to Information Security Social Networking Sites

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Factors Increasing the Threats to Information Security Social Networking Sites

  • Today’s interconnected, interdependent, wirelessly-networked business environment

  • Government legislation

  • Smaller, faster, cheaper computers and storage devices

  • Decreasing skills necessary to be a computer hacker

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Decreasing Skill Necessary to be a Hacker Social Networking Sites

Increasing Sophistication of Attacks

New & Easier Attack Tools

Attack Sophistication







Knowledge Required by Intruder


New & Easier Tools make it very easy to attack the Network

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Factors Increasing the Threats to Information Security (continued)

  • International organized crime turning to cybercrime

  • Downstream liability

  • Increased employee use of unmanaged devices

  • Lack of management support

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A Look at Unmanaged Devices (continued)

Wi-Fi at McDonalds

Hotel Business Center

Wi-Fi at Starbucks

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Key Information Security Terms (continued)

  • Threat

  • Exposure

  • Vulnerability

  • Risk

  • Information system controls

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Security Threats (continued)(Figure 3.1)

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Categories of Threats to Information Systems (continued)

  • Unintentional acts

  • Natural disasters

  • Technical failures

  • Management failures

  • Deliberate acts

    (from Whitman and Mattord, 2003)

    Example of a threat (video)

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Unintentional Acts (continued)

  • Human errors

  • Deviations in quality of service by service providers (e.g., utilities)

  • Environmental hazards (e.g., dirt, dust, humidity)

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Human Errors (continued)

  • Tailgating

  • Shoulder surfing

  • Carelessness with laptops and portable computing devices

  • Opening questionable e-mails

  • Careless Internet surfing

  • Poor password selection and use

  • And more

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Shoulder Surfing (continued)

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Most Dangerous Employees (continued)

Human resources and MIS

Remember, these employees hold ALL the information

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Social Engineering (continued)

  • 60 Minutes Interview with Kevin Mitnick, the “King of Social Engineering”

  • Kevin Mitnick served several years in a federal prison. Upon his release, he opened his own consulting firm, advising companies on how to deter people like him,

    • See his company here

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Natural Disasters (continued)

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Deliberate Acts (continued)

  • Espionage or trespass

  • Information extortion

  • Sabotage or vandalism

  • Theft of equipment or information

    • For example, dumpster diving

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Deliberate Acts (continued)(continued)

Identity theft video

Compromises to intellectual property

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Deliberate Acts (continued)(continued)

  • Software attacks

    • Virus

    • Worm

      • 1988: first widespread worm, created by Robert T. Morris, Jr.

      • (see the rapid spread of the Slammer worm)

    • Trojan horse

    • Logic Bomb

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Deliberate Acts (continued)(continued)

  • Software attacks (continued)

    • Phishing attacks

      • Phishing slideshow

      • Phishing quiz

      • Phishing example

      • Phishing example

    • Distributed denial-of-service attacks

      • See botnet demonstration

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Deliberate Acts (continued)(continued)

  • Software attacks (continued)

    Can you be Phished?

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Is the email really from eBay, or PayPal, or a bank? (continued)

As Spammers get better, their emails look more genuine. How do you tell if it’s a scam and phishing for personal information? Here’s how ...

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Is the email really from eBay, or PayPal, (continued) or a bank?

As an example, here is what the email said:

  • Return-path: <[email protected]>

  • From: "PayPal"<[email protected]>

  • Subject: You have 1 new Security Message Alert !

    Note that they even give

    advice in the right column

    about security

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How to see what is happening (continued)View Source

  • In Outlook, right click on email, click ‘view source’

  • In GroupWise, open email and click on the Message Source tab

  • In Mozilla Thunderbird, click on View, and Source.

  • Below is the part of the text that makes the email look official – the images came from the PayPal website.

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In the body it said, “If you are traveling, “Travelling Confirmation Here”

Here is where you are really being sent

href=3Dftp://futangiu:[email protected]/index.htm

Notice that the link is not only not PayPal, it is an IP address, 2 giveaways of a fraudulent link.

View Source – The Real Link

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View Source Confirmation Here”

Another Example – Amazon

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Deliberate Acts (continued) Confirmation Here”

  • Alien Software

    • Spyware (see video)

    • Spamware

    • Cookies

      • Cookie demo

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Keystroke Logger Confirmation Here”

Plugs in between monitor and computer

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Example of CAPTCHA Confirmation Here”

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Deliberate Acts (continued) Confirmation Here”

  • Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) attacks

Wireless sensor

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What if a SCADA attack were successful? Confirmation Here”

Northeastern U.S. power outage in 2003

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A Successful (Experimental) SCADA Confirmation Here” Attack

Video of an experimental SCADA attack

that was successful

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Example of Cyber Warfare Confirmation Here”

See video of cyber warfare directed at Estonia

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Risk! Confirmation Here”

There is always risk!

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And then there is real risk! Confirmation Here”

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Risk Management Confirmation Here”

  • Risk

  • Risk management

  • Risk analysis

  • Risk mitigation

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Risk Mitigation Strategies Confirmation Here”

  • Risk Acceptance

  • Risk limitation

  • Risk transference

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Risk Optimization Confirmation Here”

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Controls Confirmation Here”

  • Physical controls

  • Access controls

  • Communications (network) controls

  • Application controls

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Access Controls Confirmation Here”

  • Authentication

    • Something the user is (biometrics powerpoints)

      • Video on biometrics

      • The latest biometric: gait recognition

      • The Raytheon Personal Identification Device

    • Something the user has

    • Something the user does

    • Something the user knows

      • passwords

      • passphrases

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Access Controls (continued) Confirmation Here”

  • Authorization

    • Privilege

    • Least privilege

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Communication or Network Controls Confirmation Here”

  • Firewalls

  • Anti-malware systems

  • Whitelisting and Blacklisting

  • Intrusion detection systems

  • Encryption

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Basic Home Firewall Confirmation Here” (top) and Corporate Firewall (bottom)

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How Public Key Encryption Confirmation Here” Works

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How Digital Certificates Work Confirmation Here”

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Communication or Network Controls Confirmation Here” (continued)

  • Virtual private networking

  • Secure Socket Layer (now transport layer security)

  • Vulnerability management systems

  • Employee monitoring systems

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Employee Monitoring System Confirmation Here”

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Business Continuity Planning, Backup, and Recovery Confirmation Here”

  • Hot Site

  • Warm Site

  • Cold Site

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Information Systems Auditing Confirmation Here”

  • Types of Auditors and Audits

    • Internal

    • External

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IS Auditing Procedure Confirmation Here”

  • Auditing around the computer

  • Auditing through the computer

  • Auditing with the computer

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Chapter Closing Case Confirmation Here”