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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers Origins of Intelligence Testing Intelligence Test a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores

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Myers psychology 7th ed l.jpg

Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY(7th Ed)

Chapter 11

Intelligence

James A. McCubbin, PhD

Clemson University

Worth Publishers


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Intelligence Test

    • a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Mental Age

    • a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet

    • chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

    • child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Stanford-Binet

    • the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test

      • revised by Terman at Stanford University


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

    • defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100

      • IQ = ma/ca x 100)

    • on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100


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What is Intelligence?

  • Intelligence

    • ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations


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What is Intelligence?

  • Factor Analysis

    • statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test

    • used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score

  • General Intelligence(g)

    • factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities

    • measured by every task on an intelligence test


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Are There Multiple Intelligences?

  • Savant Syndrome

    • condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill

      • computation

      • drawing


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Are There Multiple Intelligences?

  • Social Intelligence

    • the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully

  • Emotional Intelligence

    • ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions


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Intelligence and Creativity

  • Creativity

    • the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

      • expertise

      • imaginative thinking skills

      • venturesome personality

      • intrinsic motivation

      • creative environment


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Mask

Stimulus

Question: Long side on left or right?

Brain Function and Intelligence

  • People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Aptitude Test

    • a test designed to predict a person’s future performance

    • aptitude is the capacity to learn

  • Achievement Test

    • a test designed to assess what a person has learned


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

    • most widely used intelligence test

    • subtests

      • verbal

      • performance (nonverbal)


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VERBAL

PERFORMANCE

Picture Completion

Picture Arrangement

Block Design

Object Assembly

Digit-Symbol Substitution

General Information

Similarities

Arithmetic Reasoning

Vocabulary

Comprehension

Digit Span

From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977

Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Standardization

    • defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”

  • Normal Curve

    • the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes

    • most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes


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The Normal Curve


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Getting Smarter?


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Reliability

    • the extent to which a test yields consistent results

    • assessed by consistency of scores on:

      • two halves of the test

      • alternate forms of the test

      • retesting

  • Validity

    • the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Content Validity

    • the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

      • driving test that samples driving tasks

  • Criterion

    • behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict

    • the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Predictive Validity

    • success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict

    • assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

    • also called criterion-related validity


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10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Greater correlation

over broad range

of body weights

Football linemen’s

success

Little corre-

lation within

restricted

range

180 250 290

Body weight in pounds

Assessing Intelligence

  • As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes


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The Dynamics of Intelligence

  • Mental Retardation

    • a condition of limited mental ability

    • indicated by an intelligence score below 70

    • produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life

    • varies from mild to profound

  • Down Syndrome

    • retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup


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The Dynamics of Intelligence


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Genetic Influences

  • The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores


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Genetic Influences

  • Heritability

    • the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

    • variability depends on range of populations and environments studied


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Genetic Influences


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Environmental Influences

  • The Schooling Effect


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Variation within group

Variation within group

Seeds

Poor soil

Fertile soil

Difference within group

Group Differences

  • Group differences and environmental impact


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Standard

Responses

Group Differences

  • The Mental Rotation Test

Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks

identical to the one in the circle at the left?


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Group Differences

  • Stereotype Threat

    • A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype


  • Login