CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals. 2. Objectives. Understand router startupDescribe and use the Cisco Discovery ProtocolUnderstand configuration management commands for Cisco routers and the 1900 series switchConfigure IP on the Cisco router and the 1900 series switchTroubleshoot router connectivity problems.

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CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking

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1. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Chapter 7: Router Startup and Configuration

2. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 2 Objectives Understand router startup Describe and use the Cisco Discovery Protocol Understand configuration management commands for Cisco routers and the 1900 series switch Configure IP on the Cisco router and the 1900 series switch Troubleshoot router connectivity problems

3. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 3 Router Startup Boot process steps Test hardware Load bootstrap program Locate and load the Cisco IOS Locate and load the router configuration file

4. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 4 Router Startup (continued)

5. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 5 Router Startup (continued) POST Power-on self test (POST) Bootstrap program Diagnostic test for hardware ROM monitor Read-only memory (ROM)

6. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 6 Router Startup (continued) Configuration register 16-bit setting stored in NVRAM Hexadecimal code Configuration register controls several boot functions Forcing the system into the bootstrap program Enabling or disabling the console Break function Setting the console terminal baud rate Loading the IOS from ROM Loading the IOS from a TFTP server “show version” command

7. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 7 Router Startup (continued)

8. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 8 Router Startup (continued)

9. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 9 Router Startup (continued) ROM monitor mode (>) or (rommon>) ROM monitor mode initiates when Manually configured Cannot locate Cisco IOS A forced system break Ctrl+”break” keys with in 60 seconds (Hyperterm) “config-register 0x2100” command “show version” command “copy run start” command “reload” command

10. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 10 Router Startup (continued) RxBoot mode Cannot boot from flash Cannot locate IOS or corrupt IOS RxBoot mode prompt Router hostname followed by (boot) Router(boot) Limited set of IOS commands to configure the router

11. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 11 Router Startup (continued) Cisco IOS Usually loaded from flash memory “show flash” command “show version” command Fallback options for loading the IOS Load from TFTP server Cannot find IOS, load from ROM (basic IOS) Default fallback sequence to locate the IOS Flash TFTP server ROM

12. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 12 Router Startup (continued)

13. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 13 Router Startup (continued)

14. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 14 Boot System Commands Alternative to the “config-register” command Configure router to locate IOS Boot system commands are stored in start-up configuration file Boot system commands only work when last digit of config-register is “2” Boot system command structure “boot system [location of IOS] [IOS file name]” “boot system tftp c1700-j-mz.122-5(t).bin”

15. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 15 Boot System Commands Router will broadcast looking for a tftp a computer running TFTP software TFTP server must be on a subnet directly connected to the router broadcasting for TFTP services Multiple “boot system” commands maybe entered for redundancy “copy run start” command

16. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 16 Upgrading The IOS Upgrading IOS check list Ensure router has enough memory “show flash” command Backup current IOS to a TFTP server Identify the current IOS file name “show flash” command “show version” command “copy tftp flash” command

17. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 17 Router Configuration Files Startup-config file Also known as the backup configuration file Startup-config file is loaded into RAM at which point it becomes the running-config file “show startup-config” command Reboot the system to revert to the settings is the startup-config file Power off and on “reload” command

18. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 18 Router Configuration Files (continued) “copy start run” or “copy tftp run” merges with the current running-config settings No “erase running-config” command “erase startup” command Not the same as “erase nvram”

19. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 19 Methods For Making Changes Changes can be implemented and tested without saving to the startup-config file Changes to the running configuration take place immediately Basic steps for implementing changes Make desired changes Examine the changes and the affects Determine if the changes meet the desired results Remove changes if they do not meet the desired results or simply reboot the system If desired result have been met then save to startup-config file

20. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 20 CDP Cisco discovery protocol (CDP) Proprietary Data Link layer protocol Shares basic system and configuration settings to directly connected Cisco devices Routers Switches Hubs Access servers

21. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 21 CDP (continued) “show cdp neighbors” command provides the following options Ethernet Learn about Ethernet interfaces attached to neighbors Null Learn about interfaces of a neighbor that does not have an address assigned Serial Information about neighbors connected to serial interfaces Detail Detailed information about the CDP neighbor and all attached devices This detailed information includes device identification, remote interface type, and remote IP address

22. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 22 CDP (continued) Low-overhead protocol Broadcasts information ever 60 seconds by default Enabled on all Cisco devices by default Possible to turn off CDP Entire router Individual interfaces

23. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 23 IP On The Router IP maybe configured by the extended setup program Steps to manually configure IP on the router and the interface Enter global configuration mode “ip routing” command Enter interface mode for desired interface Assign IP address Activate the interface “no shutdown” command

24. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 24 IP On The Router (continued) Two ways to have multiple IPs on an interface Secondary IP address Subinterfaces “term ip netmask-format” command

25. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 25 IP On The Switch IP address are not required on a switch Switches operate on the Data Link layer (MAC) addresses To remotely manage a switch assign IP address for the entire switch Assign a gateway for the switch By default switches are not configured with an IP address or a gateway

26. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 26 IP Connectivity

27. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 27 Telnet Connects at the highest layer of the OSI model Provides remote access Virtual terminal ports Successful telnet connection means connectivity at all layers

28. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 28 IP Host Names Refer to a remote host or router by name Address to name mapping on the router “ip host router_central 192.168.10.1” “show hosts” command “ip host” command is local service DNS is a non-local name resolution service

29. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 29 IP Host Names (continued) DNS is a non-local name resolution service “ip name-server 192.168.10.3”

30. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 30 Ping And Trace Test Internetwork layer connectivity of the TCP/IP model Available in User EXEC and Privileged EXEC modes ICMP Echo request Echo reply “ping” command and extended mode ping “traceroute” command

31. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 31 Ping And Trace (continued) Ping utility send five packets and will have the following replies !: Successful receipt of the ICMP echo .: Request timed out U: Destination was unreachable C: Congestion experienced I: Ping interrupted ?: Packet type unknown &: Packet TTL exceeded

32. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 32 Ping And Trace (continued) Traceroute responses !H: Indicates that a router received, but didn’t forward, the ICMP echo request P: Protocol unreachable N: Network unreachable U: Port unreachable *: Request timed out

33. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 33 IP Route If ping or traceroute fail check the routing table “show ip route” command Displays the routing table Routing table displays Directly connected networks Dynamically learned networks Statically assigned routes

34. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 34 Checking The Interface If the interface is down then packets cannot be delivered “show interface” command Check the status of the interface View the interface configuration Possible interface states Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is down Serial0/0 is down, line protocol is down Serial0/0 is administratively down, line protocol is down

35. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 35 Checking The Interface (continued) Clear counters Routers keep detail statistics (counters) Sometimes beneficial to clear the existing counters “clear interface serial 0/0” Debug Debugs provides information on real-time router events Resource intensive Negative impact on router performance Do not run for extended periods of time “no debug all”, “undebug all”

36. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 36 Router Password Recovery Password recovery is not the same for all router and switch modules Cisco.com has instructions available for every Cisco network device Cannot perform password recovery through telnet or other remote means Password recovery example (2600 series router) Connect to router via console connection

37. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 37 Router Password Recovery (continued) Password recovery example (2600 series router) (continued) Connect to router via console connection Power cycle the router (cold boot) Enter break sequence within 60 seconds of boot Hyperterm (Ctrl+break), Tera Term (ALT+b) At rommon> prompt type “confreg 0x2142” Enter the “reset” command to reboot the router Do not enter setup sequence “copy start run” command

38. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 38 Router Password Recovery (continued) Password recovery example (2600 series router) (continued) Change passwords “config-register 0x2102” command to reset router “copy run start” command

39. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 39 Summary When the router boots, it follows a set routine Although the router’s boot process can vary, the typical boot process follows this sequence: First, the router checks all of its internal hardware components during a process called the POST (power-on self-test) Next, the router loads the basic configuration routine known as the bootstrap program Then, the bootstrap attempts to locate the Cisco IOS, which in turn loads the router configuration file

40. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 40 Summary (continued) If the Cisco IOS is set to load from a TFTP server, but the TFTP server cannot be located, then the IOS will boot from flash memory If the IOS cannot be found in flash memory or on the TFTP server, then a limited version will boot from ROM If the Cisco IOS is set to load a configuration file from a TFTP server, but the file or server is not available, the configuration file will be loaded from NVRAM However, if a configuration file is not available in NVRAM or on a TFTP server, then the automated setup routine will be initialized

41. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 41 Summary (continued) The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is proprietary to Cisco devices This protocol shares information between Cisco devices about other local Cisco devices CDP uses broadcasts to update neighbors every 60 seconds by default (the update time interval is configurable) Devices share information about their interface configurations and connections to other devices IP configuration on Cisco switches and routers is similar: the command syntax is ip address [IP address] [subnet mask]

42. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 42 Summary (continued) When you configure an address for a router interface, you must be in interface configuration mode (config-if ) When you configure an IP address for a Catalyst 1900 switch, you need only be in global configuration mode These switches don’t require IP addresses; you need only configure one if you intend to remotely manage the switch You can verify router connectivity to other systems by using telnet to determine if there is Application layer connectivity

43. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals 43 Summary (continued) If you cannot get connectivity at the Application layer, try trace and ping Then, check your routing table with the show ip route command to determine if there is a problem with the Network layer One of the most important troubleshooting commands is the show interfaces command If your interfaces are not up, you cannot route packets

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