Thesauri, Terminologies and the Semantic Web
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Thesauri, Terminologies and the Semantic Web. CCLRC. Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC) Big Science Synchrotron Radiation Sources Lasers Pulsed Neutron Source Large-scale IT demands: tera-scale data, computation Strong IT R&D programme

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Cclrc
CCLRC

  • Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC)

  • Big Science

    • Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    • Lasers

    • Pulsed Neutron Source

  • Large-scale IT demands: tera-scale data, computation

  • Strong IT R&D programme

  • BITD: Business and Information Technology Department


Swad e
SWAD-E

  • Semantic Web Advanced Development for Europe (SWAD-E)

  • EU Project

  • W3C Semantic Web Activity

    • R&D

    • Demos & Apps

    • Guidelines & Best Practises

  • Partners: HP Labs, ILRT, Stilo, ERCIM (INRIA), CCLRC


Semantic web
Semantic Web

  • Current Web:

    • Web of information for humans

  • Semantic Web:

    • Web of data for computers

  • Why?

    • Automation, organisation, search

  • Enabling technologies:

    • RDF: Resource Description Framework

      • Data linking, low-level semantics

    • OWL: Web Ontology Language

      • High-level semantics, inference


Swad e thesaurus activity
SWAD-E Thesaurus Activity

  • Why is SWAD-E interested in thesauri?

    • Large body of well-engineered knowledge

      • Enrich & bootstrap semantic web

  • SWAD-E Thesaurus Activity

    • Design Schemas for thesaurus data

    • Guidelines for use and migration

    • Supporting technologies and demos


Exploiting the semantic web
Exploiting the Semantic Web

  • What can you get out of the semantic web?

    • Integration & Connectivity

    • Data Interoperability

    • Application Interoperability

  • N.B. The Semantic Web is a Tool.


Integration connectivity
Integration & Connectivity

  • Recurring use-case: high/low-level thesauri

    • E.g. GCL & Cultural Heritage thesauri

    • E.g. Gerry’s macro/micro thesauri

  • RDF => Data linking

    • Can create large linked thesaurus structures – super-thesauri

    • Linking solves problem of concurrent versions


Data interoperability
Data Interoperability

  • Interoperability is a major goal

  • Move to XML technologies is a step in the right direction

  • But …

    • XML does not equal Interoperability

  • [N.B. plethora of XML formats for thesauri]


Skos core rdf schema for thesauri
SKOS-Core: RDF Schema for Thesauri

  • Introducing: SKOS-Core 1.0

    • RDF Schema for Thesauri

    • SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation Systems

  • The First Challenge: coping with variety in thesaurus design and structure

    • Allow unique features

    • Support interoperability

  • The Second Challenge: interoperating with/migrating to ontologies, taxonomies, classification schemes etc.

  • N.B. The semantic web is where data collide


Skos meta model
SKOS Meta-Model

  • SKOS Meta-Model: Concept-orientation

    • Concepts (given URIs)

    • Labels (pref, alt) (symbols)

    • Concept Schemes

    • Semantic Relations (extensible set)

      • Broader, narrower, related …

    • Semantic Mappings (extensible set)

      • Exact, inexact …

    • Scope notes, definitions, depictions

  • Infer meaning of concept from labels, scope notes, definitions, depictions & neighbours.

skos:semanticRelation

sub-property of

skos:broader

sub-property of

skos:broaderInstantive



Example gemet
Example: GEMET

  • Non-Standard Features:

    • Groups & Super-Groups

    • Themes

  • Solution: Extend SKOS-Core:

    • Class gemet:Group

      • Sub-class of skos:Concept

    • Class gemet:Theme

      • Sub-class of skos:Concept

    • Property gemet:broaderTheme

      • Sub-property of skos:broader

    • Property gemet:broaderGroup

      • Sub-propery of skos:broader

skos:semanticRelation

sub-property of

skos:broader

sub-property of

gemet:broaderGroup


Approach to non standard thesauri
Approach to Non-Standard Thesauri

  • Design schema as extension to SKOS-Core

    • Preserve unique features

    • Can interoperate with anything based on SKOS-Core

  • Have your cake and eat it!


Example mesh
Example: MeSH

  • Medical Subject Headings

  • Thesaurus features:

    • Semantically ambiguous concept hierarchy

  • Ontology features:

    • Semantic typing of concepts, e.g. Calcymycin type Antibiotic

  • Use combination of SKOS and OWL to represent this hybrid structure

  • RDF, SKOS & OWL means you can migrate a thesaurus to ontology merely by adding statements

  • (No re-engineering or transformation is required)


Interoperability thesaurus mapping
Interoperability: Thesaurus Mapping

  • Common use-case: overlapping thesauri

    • Mappings support interchangeable use of overlapping thesauri

  • Introducing: SKOS-Mapping

    • RDF Schema for inter-thesaurus mapping


Skos mapping

Exact

Inexact

Major

Minor

Partial

Broad

Narrow

Ordered

Combinators: AND, OR, NOT

SKOS-Mapping

Sets of Resources in which Concept Occurs


Data interop summary
Data Interop Summary

  • SKOS-Core supports interoperability of KOS with variable structures

  • SKOS-Mapping supports interoperability of overlapping KOS


Multilinguality
Multilinguality

  • Analyse multilingual thesaurus into language components

  • Multilingual Labelling

    • Use SKOS-Core

    • E.g. GEMET

  • Inter-lingual Mapping

    • Use SKOS-Core + SKOS-Mapping

    • E.g. AAT, Merimee


Multilinguality 2
Multilinguality (2)

Analyse each language component

Multilingual Labelling

Interlingual Mapping


Application interoperability
Application Interoperability

  • Move to modularisation and distribution via web services is step in the right direction

  • But …

    • Web services does not equal application interoperability

  • Web service API

    • Community driven design

    • Endorsed by wider community


Skos api
SKOS API

  • SKOS API

    • Interface to terminology web service

    • Under development (pre-release is online)

  • Participate on public mailing list:

    [email protected]


Web service implementation
Web Service Implementation

  • Reference Implementation of SKOS API

    • Leverage power of sem-web tools

      • E.g. RDF Query

      • E.g. transitive closure of broader concepts

  • SOAP Service

    • Back end: Sesame RDF Store

    • Modular design

  • Semantic Web Services


Future issues
Future Issues

  • Social aspects

    • Semantic web technology supports community driven development of thesauri

    • But … validation?

  • Change Management

    • Versioning

    • Evolution


Summary
Summary

  • Semantic Web Technologies are tools

    • SKOS-Core & SKOS-Mapping support data interoperability

    • SKOS API supports application interoperability

  • W3C Semantic Web Best Practises Working Group

    • Thesaurus Task Force


Swad e eco informatics
SWAD-E & Eco-informatics

  • Work with thesaurus developers and managers

    • Publish RDF encodings of current thesauri

    • Test design and coverage of SKOS-Core

  • Community building for development of web service API


Thank you
Thank You

  • Links:

    SWAD-Europe Thesaurus Activity

    http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Europe/reports/thes/

    SKOS-Core 1.0 Guide

    http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Europe/reports/thes/1.0/guide/

    SKOS API

    http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Europe/reports/thes/skosapi.html

    SKOS-Core 1.0 Guidelines for Migration

    http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Europe/reports/thes/1.0/migrate/

    Public Thesaurus Mailing list

    [email protected]

    W3C Semantic Web Activity

    http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/

    SWAD-E Project

    http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Europe/


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