Capitalism and domestic politics 1890 1930
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Capitalism and Domestic Politics (1890-1930). Economic Development and Social Change Ideological and Political Conflicts Party Politics. Social Change. Population growth: 35 million (1873) to 60 million (1925) Differences between urban and rural population in income, life style and values

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Capitalism and Domestic Politics (1890-1930)

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Capitalism and Domestic Politics (1890-1930)

Economic Development and Social Change

Ideological and Political Conflicts

Party Politics


Social Change

  • Population growth: 35 million (1873) to 60 million (1925)

  • Differences between urban and rural population in income, life style and values

  • Absentee landlords and increased tenancy (45%)

  • Tenant associations and disputes

  • Unions expanded in WWI and after and move to the left


Ideological and Political conflicts

  • Conservatives: Confucian ethics, Shinto myth of emperor in textbooks, press and national holidays

  • Local Improvement Movement: rural cooperatives and savings associations, youth associations, Military Reserve Association

  • Liberalism: education and self-improvement. Policies to prioritize economy and human rights

  • Parties’ political and social reforms


Socialism

  • Radical socialism and moderate Christian socialism

  • Socialist League (1920), JCP (1921)

  • Excess of factionalism and lack of mass participation


Party Politics

  • Politics of protest before 1890

  • Compromise after Sino-Japanese War: integration of parties into government

  • Conflict between Yamagata and Ito

  • Founding of Seiyukai (1900)

  • Katsura-Saionji Truce (1901-12)

  • Hara Kei and strengthening of Seiyukai


Party Politics

  • Taisho Crisis and the founding of Kenseikai (1916)

  • Hara Kei formed a party government in 1918 but little reform towards popular democracy

  • Kato Takaaki (1924-26) and reforms (universal suffrage)

  • Weak power base: lack of popular support for corruption


Party Politics

  • Politics of protest before 1890

  • Compromise after Sino-Japanese War: integration of parties into government

  • Conflict between Yamagata and Ito

  • Founding of Seiyukai (1900)

  • Katsura-Saionji Truce (1901-12)

  • Hara Kei and strengthening of Seiyukai


Study Questions

  • What were ideological and political agendas of the conservatives, liberals and Socialists?

  • How did the parliamentary politics evolve from protest of the opposition into party governments? Why did Japanese fail to develop a viable parliamentary democracy?


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