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Breast Cancer Elisheva Yondorf Autosomal Dominant Inheritance It is a gene disorder. Found in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. The gene is dominant Pedigree Diagram Risks

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Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer

Elisheva Yondorf


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Autosomal Dominant Inheritance

  • It is a gene disorder.

  • Found in the BRCA1 or

    BRCA2 gene.

  • The gene is dominant


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Pedigree Diagram


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Risks

  • Not having children- Women who have had no children or had their first child after they were 30, havesomewhat of a higher risk of breast cancer.

  • Alcohol: women who consume 1 alcoholic drink a day have a very small increase in risk. women that have 2 to 5 drinks daily have about 1½ times the risk of women who drink no alcohol.


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Symptoms of Breast Cancer

  • A spur-of-the-moment clear or bloody release from the nipple

  • Retraction or indentation of the nipple

  • A change in the size or contours of your breast

  • Any flattening or indentation of the skin on your breast

  • Redness of the skin on your breast


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Detection and Diagnosis

  • Clinical Breast Exam - If you have a lump, the doctor will feel its size, shape, and texture. Benign lumps often feel different from cancerous ones. Lumps that are soft, smooth, round, and movable are likely to be benign. A hard, oddly shaped lump that feels tightly attached inside the breast is more likely to be cancer.

  • Diagnostic Mammogram- X-ray of the breasts used to check for breast cancer after a lump or other sign or symptom of breast cancer has been found

  • Ultrasound- sends out sound waves and the waves bounce off tissues. A computer uses the echoes to create a picture. The pictures may show whether a lump is solid or filled with fluid. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac. Cysts are not cancer. But a solid mass may be cancer.

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)- which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer create detailed pictures of areas inside the body.


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Detection and Diagnosis (continued)

  • Biopsy- Fluid or tissue is removed from your breast to help find out if there is cancer.

    • Doctors can remove tissue from the breast in different ways

      • fine-needle aspiration is the removal of tissue or fluid with a needle so it can be looked at under a microscope.

      • core biopsy is the removal of a tissue sample with a needle for examination under a microscope.

      • Surgical biopsyis when a surgeon removes a sample of tissue and then a pathologist checks the tissue for cancer cells.


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Prognosis

  • The prognosis depends on how severe it is. Early detection has a better chance for survival.

    • 100% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected before it starts to spread.

    • 98% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected while it is smaller than 2cm in diameter and hasn’t spread

    • 88% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected while it is 2-5cm in diameter and has spread to axillary lymph nodes

    • 76% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected even over 5cm in diameter if it hasn’t spread to axillary lymph nodes


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Prognosis (continued)

  • 76% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected while it is 2-5cm in diameter and has spread to axillary lymph nodes

  • 56% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected after it has spread to axillary lymph nodes and to axillary tissues

  • 49% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected after it has attached itself to the chest wall and chest lymph nodes

  • 16% of women survive breast cancer if it is detected after it has spread to other parts of the body such as bone, lung or liver


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Graphs


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Graphs

2000-2003


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Treatment

  • Breast cancer has a lot of treatment options.

    • surgery

    • radiation therapy

    • chemotherapy

    • hormone therapy

    • biological therapy


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Surgery

  • The main goal of surgery is to completely remove the tumor.

    • There are two types of surgery for breast cancer

      • Breast conserving surgery

        -only the tumor and some surrounding tissue are removed

      • Mastectomy

        -the entire breast is removed


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Stories of inspiration

Julie Safley

Treatment: Lumpectomy, Chemotherapy, Radiation

“Every year as the New Year's holiday approaches, each female in my family selects a word that represents something they wish to achieve or emulate during the upcoming 365 days. This past year I chose "courage," and at the time didn't realize just how much courage I would need in the months ahead.

On June 21, I was diagnosed with breast cancer and my life changed forever. I was a single 30-year-old with no family history of breast cancer, and no warning signs, or so I thought. But from February through May I had a lump near my sternum and assumed I had torn a muscle while lifting weights. I didn't associate it with breast cancer because it was not in the breast area.

When I went to my doctor for a routine appointment, I pointed it out to her. It is important to note that I pointed it out after she had completed a traditional breast exam, which did not include the chest area above the sternum. Within a week I was scheduled for surgery, and I realized just how quickly life can change. What started out as something I assumed could be 'cured' became something of greater concern as I learned more about my aggressive type of cancer. And because of my young age and the location of the cancer, complete surgical removal was not assured.

A storm of emotionsIt's hard to put into words the emotions I had. I felt cheated. I felt I had lived my life well thus far, volunteering my time where needed and working diligently to save money for the future, which I hoped would include children. Now I received news that altered my entire future and possibly determined whether I could ever have children. My entire life savings would now be spent to fight a disease I thought more common in older women.


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Inspiration

I have had a lumpectomy and have almost completed dose dense chemotherapy. Recently I began a one-year regimen of Herceptin®, the cutting-edge drug that can increase the life expectancy of people with my type of cancer. Later this year I will begin extensive radiation treatments. This is necessary because the location of my cancer prohibited getting clear margins through surgery.

The many faces of courageCourage was the word I selected for 2006 and quickly I learned how significant it would become. I need courage to get through the side effects of treatment and to share my story. I need courage to continue to believe that there will be increased medical advances and funding for young breast cancer patients. I choose courage each day to get out of bed, to hold my head high, to put on my wig, and to continue living. Breast cancer does not define me nor does it overshadow my responsibilities as a school psychologist or in coaching youth. I will use courage to live with and overcome breast cancer.

Still, there are days when I grapple with my condition, grieve for the pain this has caused my family, and struggle with the financial burden of dealing with breast cancer. I rely on courage to guide me through the emotional darkness and I continue to trust my medical team to help me make the right choices so that I can enjoy a long life.”


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Credits

  • www.komen.org

  • www.cancer.org

  • www.breastcancer.org

  • www.womenshealth.gov

  • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/whataregd/brca/index.cfm


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