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AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (water-associated organisms) PowerPoint PPT Presentation

AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (water-associated organisms) Non-native (exotic) Uncontrollable Ecologic & Economic Harm UTAH’S AIS PATHOGENS Whirling Disease Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia FUNGUS & ALGAE Chytrid Didymo PLANTS Phragmites Tamarisk Purple Loosestrife Eurasian Water Milfoil

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AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (water-associated organisms)

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Aquatic invasive species water associated organisms l.jpg

AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES(water-associated organisms)

  • Non-native (exotic)

  • Uncontrollable

  • Ecologic & Economic Harm


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UTAH’S AIS

PATHOGENS

Whirling Disease

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia

FUNGUS & ALGAE

Chytrid

Didymo


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PLANTS

Phragmites

Tamarisk

Purple Loosestrife

Eurasian Water Milfoil

Curly Pond Weed

MOLLUSKS

New Zealand Mud Snail

Red-rimmed Melania

Asian Clam

Non-native Crayfish

Dreissena Mussels

Quagga

Zebra

Conrad’s False

UTAH’S AIS


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FISH

Mosquito Fish

Burbot

Gizzard Shad

Other non-native fish

AMPHIBIANS

Bullfrog

Green Frog

Plains Leopard Frog

Rio Grande Leopard Frog

UTAH’S AIS


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REPTILES

Red-eared Slider

New Mexico Whiptail

OTHER

Discarded Aquarium Fauna or Flora

(e.g. gold fish)

Aqua-scaping

Bait Releases

Private Aquaculture

UTAH’S AIS


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Prepare a Mgmt Plan

UDWR (chair)

DNR (SP&R, Water Resources)

UT Dept Ag

DEQ

USFWS

USFS

BLM

NPS

BOR

URMCC

Water Conservancy Districts

UT Angler Assoc.

Industry Water Users

UDWR’s Team

Aquatic Coordinator

Outreach Coordinator

5 AIS Biologists

22 Wildlife Technicians

5 Conservation Officers

$1.64 Million/yr

Utah’s AIS Task Force


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Dreissena Mussel ExampleQuagga, Zebra & Conrad’s FalseA Threat To Utah“forever keep them out” or “forever live with them”

Utah Division of Wildlife Resources


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Dreissena Spread Rapidly

Native to Russia--spread throughout Europe

Arrived St. Lawrence Seaway mid 1980s

Spread: Great Lakes, Canada & U.S.

Mississippi River Basin to New Orleans

East & Mid West US (100th Meridian)

January 2007 Arrived Western U.S.

Lower Colorado River

* Mead (NV)

* Mohave (AZ)

* Havasu (CA)

Lake Powell, August 07


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Map


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Understanding Dreissena Mussels

  • Invasive, non-native

  • Quagga, Zebra & Conrad’s False

    • Species much alike (two-shelled – like a clam)

  • Sexual Reproduction via Spawning (3 mm)

    • 1,000,000 veligers per year

  • Colonies can be 12” deep

  • Quagga are a greater problem

    • colder, deeper & soft substrates

    • Quagga displaces Zebra

    • Adult: Zebra = 12 mm; Quagga = 20 mm

    • Larvae: Veligers = microscopic to sand grain sized


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DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTSMaintenance Perspective

Typical Maintenance Expenditures in the East

  • 51% electric generation (steam & hydro)

  • 31% water treatment

  • 18% industrial & other water users

  • East: maintenance @ $100 million/year

  • West: maintenance @ $10 million/year

    • Utah: estimated to exceed $15 million/year

      • $3.2 million--electric generation (steam & hydro)—63 plants)

      • $7.2 million--water treatment—30 plants

      • $4.4 million—industrial & other water users

      • $?? million--pipelines (1,120 miles) & canals (4,573 miles)


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    DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTSRecreational Expenditure Perspective

    • Nationally: anglers expend $40 billion annually

    • Utah: anglers expend $708 million annually

    • Reduced angler participation may occur:

      • Decreased fish condition (length & weight)

      • Fish die offs due to blue-green algae blooms

      • Species change to less desirable species

      • Deteriorated recreational satisfaction

        • Odor

        • Sharp shells

        • Risk to equipment (overheat engines)


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    Dreissena Environmental Impacts

    • They Are Filter Feeders:

      • Remove plankton, removing fish food

        • Filter volume of Lake Erie in 36 hours!!

    • Feces Cause High Coliform Counts

    • Pseudo Feces Rots

      • Smell

      • Oxygen depletion

      • Blue-green algae, which releases toxin

    • Stimulate Avian Botulism


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    When Fish Chow Disappears

    Lake Michigan Lake Trout declined 95% in 10 years--WHY?

    Utah’s Waters

    *Plankton decrease Likely

    *Species change Likely

    *Decreased “K” (length & weight) Likely

    *Loss of native mollusks Likely


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    How Mussels Move

    • Veligers Drift Downstream

    • Trailered Boats

      • Infested to non-infested waters

      • Failure to Drain bilge

      • Failure to Drainlive wells

      • Failure to Dry (5 days in UT)

      • Failure to Remove plants or animals

      • Failure to Wash w/HOT water

    RISKS

    • Large commercial boats

      (huge risk)

    • Owner-pulled boats (less risk)


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    Dreissena Became A Western U.S. Problem

    January 2007 Quagga

    • Lower Colorado River

      • Lake Mead

      • Lake Mohave

      • Lake Havasu

      • Colorado River

      • NV Fish Hatchery

      • CA Reservoir (Copper Basin)


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    Dreissena Now a Utah Problem

    • Top 20 destinations of Lake Mead boaters

      • #3 Lake Powell

      • #11 Pineview Reservoir

      • #12 Bear Lake

      • #14 Willard Bay

      • #19 Jordanelle Reservoir

    August 2007– veligers detected in Lake Powell

    • 29% of Utah’s Boaters Use Lake Powell

    • Where Do Lake Powell Boaters Go In Utah ?

      EVERY WHERE


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    IMPACTS: Industrial Plants

    Lots of Industries in Utah Use Water

    • Constricted water intakes

    • Constricted water circulation systems

    • Increased:

      • biologic load

      • corrosion

      • plant operation costs


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    IMPACTS: Pipelines

    Over 1,120 miles of pipelines in Utah

    • Greatly reduced flow capacity

      • Its not just on the outside; its inside, too

    • 2ND Water Systems: plugged--pipes & sprinklers

    • Increased maintenance cost ????


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    IMPACTS: Canals

    Over 4,573 miles of canals in Utah

    • Open-channel flow capacity reduced

      • Earth-lined: 24% less flow

      • Concrete-lined: 52% less flow

    • Increased maintenance cost ????


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    IMPACTS: Reservoirs

    150 reservoirs @100+ ac (Storage & Recreation)

    • Seasonal Water Level Changes = routine

      • Die Offs (fish & waterfowl)

      • Deteriorated water quality & odor

      • Difficult beach use: clean up $$$$

    • Increased maintenance cost ????


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    HOW DO WE DEAL WITH DREISSENASuccessful Mussel Prevention Example

    • Minnesota: Land of 10,000 Lakes

      • 20 years exposure: commercial & recreation vessels

      • 4 lakes & Mississippi River infested

    • Effective Aquatic Nuisance Species Plan

      • Emphasis on public education & awareness

        • 12 full-time employees

        • 45 summer watercraft inspectors

        • Illegal drive w/any mussel

        • $2.3 million annual budget


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    Emergency Responses in Utah: NPS

    NPS Initiated Self-Certification at Lake Powell

    • Education & Outreach

      • Media Coverage

      • “Zap the Zebra” brochures

      • Entry warning signs

      • Self-certification

      • Interdictions

      • Decontamination

      • Containment ????

    • Monitoring & Research

    • Training (UDWR & SP&R and others)


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    Emergency Response in Utah: UDWR

    DNR Policy: Prevent Invasion of Dreissena Mussel

    • UDWR: Lead State Agency

      • Inter-state & Interagency Coordination

    • Quagga Education & Implementation Plan

      • Education & Outreach

        • Statewide: Media Coverage

        • Statewide: 250,000 “Zap the Zebra” brochures

          (Included all 65,000 UT Boat Owners)

        • Statewide: 1,500 boat launch signs

        • Statewide: 4,500 posters

        • Statewide: sportsmen/agency lectures

      • Interdiction

      • Decontamination of Equipment

        • Containment ????

      • Monitoring & Research

      • Training (UDWR & SP&R and Others)


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    Utah’s AIS Future

    I. Maintain Sufficient Budget:

    FY08 $1,106,500

    FY09 $1,640,000

    II. Secure Legislation for an Interdiction Act

    III. Write AIS Management Plan

    IV. Be Vigilant

    ……………………..……………………..

    Memmorandum

    From: UDWR

    To: Aquatic Invasive Species

    Subject:Watch Out, We’re Coming!


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