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AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (water-associated organisms) Non-native (exotic) Uncontrollable Ecologic & Economic Harm UTAH’S AIS PATHOGENS Whirling Disease Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia FUNGUS & ALGAE Chytrid Didymo PLANTS Phragmites Tamarisk Purple Loosestrife Eurasian Water Milfoil

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aquatic invasive species water associated organisms
AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES(water-associated organisms)
  • Non-native (exotic)
  • Uncontrollable
  • Ecologic & Economic Harm
utah s ais
UTAH’S AIS

PATHOGENS

Whirling Disease

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia

FUNGUS & ALGAE

Chytrid

Didymo

utah s ais3
PLANTS

Phragmites

Tamarisk

Purple Loosestrife

Eurasian Water Milfoil

Curly Pond Weed

MOLLUSKS

New Zealand Mud Snail

Red-rimmed Melania

Asian Clam

Non-native Crayfish

Dreissena Mussels

Quagga

Zebra

Conrad’s False

UTAH’S AIS
utah s ais4
FISH

Mosquito Fish

Burbot

Gizzard Shad

Other non-native fish

AMPHIBIANS

Bullfrog

Green Frog

Plains Leopard Frog

Rio Grande Leopard Frog

UTAH’S AIS
utah s ais5
REPTILES

Red-eared Slider

New Mexico Whiptail

OTHER

Discarded Aquarium Fauna or Flora

(e.g. gold fish)

Aqua-scaping

Bait Releases

Private Aquaculture

UTAH’S AIS
utah s ais task force
Prepare a Mgmt Plan

UDWR (chair)

DNR (SP&R, Water Resources)

UT Dept Ag

DEQ

USFWS

USFS

BLM

NPS

BOR

URMCC

Water Conservancy Districts

UT Angler Assoc.

Industry Water Users

UDWR’s Team

Aquatic Coordinator

Outreach Coordinator

5 AIS Biologists

22 Wildlife Technicians

5 Conservation Officers

$1.64 Million/yr

Utah’s AIS Task Force
slide7

Dreissena Mussel ExampleQuagga, Zebra & Conrad’s FalseA Threat To Utah“forever keep them out” or “forever live with them”

Utah Division of Wildlife Resources

dreissena spread rapidly
Dreissena Spread Rapidly

Native to Russia--spread throughout Europe

Arrived St. Lawrence Seaway mid 1980s

Spread: Great Lakes, Canada & U.S.

Mississippi River Basin to New Orleans

East & Mid West US (100th Meridian)

January 2007 Arrived Western U.S.

Lower Colorado River

* Mead (NV)

* Mohave (AZ)

* Havasu (CA)

Lake Powell, August 07

understanding dreissena mussels
Understanding Dreissena Mussels
  • Invasive, non-native
  • Quagga, Zebra & Conrad’s False
    • Species much alike (two-shelled – like a clam)
  • Sexual Reproduction via Spawning (3 mm)
    • 1,000,000 veligers per year
  • Colonies can be 12” deep
  • Quagga are a greater problem
    • colder, deeper & soft substrates
    • Quagga displaces Zebra
    • Adult: Zebra = 12 mm; Quagga = 20 mm
    • Larvae: Veligers = microscopic to sand grain sized
dreissena economic impacts maintenance perspective
DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTSMaintenance Perspective

Typical Maintenance Expenditures in the East

    • 51% electric generation (steam & hydro)
    • 31% water treatment
    • 18% industrial & other water users
  • East: maintenance @ $100 million/year
  • West: maintenance @ $10 million/year
    • Utah: estimated to exceed $15 million/year
      • $3.2 million--electric generation (steam & hydro)—63 plants)
      • $7.2 million--water treatment—30 plants
      • $4.4 million—industrial & other water users
      • $?? million--pipelines (1,120 miles) & canals (4,573 miles)
dreissena economic impacts recreational expenditure perspective
DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTSRecreational Expenditure Perspective
  • Nationally: anglers expend $40 billion annually
  • Utah: anglers expend $708 million annually
  • Reduced angler participation may occur:
    • Decreased fish condition (length & weight)
    • Fish die offs due to blue-green algae blooms
    • Species change to less desirable species
    • Deteriorated recreational satisfaction
      • Odor
      • Sharp shells
      • Risk to equipment (overheat engines)
dreissena environmental impacts
Dreissena Environmental Impacts
  • They Are Filter Feeders:
    • Remove plankton, removing fish food
      • Filter volume of Lake Erie in 36 hours!!
  • Feces Cause High Coliform Counts
  • Pseudo Feces Rots
    • Smell
    • Oxygen depletion
    • Blue-green algae, which releases toxin
  • Stimulate Avian Botulism
when fish chow disappears
When Fish Chow Disappears

Lake Michigan Lake Trout declined 95% in 10 years--WHY?

Utah’s Waters

*Plankton decrease Likely

*Species change Likely

*Decreased “K” (length & weight) Likely

*Loss of native mollusks Likely

how mussels move
How Mussels Move
  • Veligers Drift Downstream
  • Trailered Boats
    • Infested to non-infested waters
    • Failure to Drain bilge
    • Failure to Drainlive wells
    • Failure to Dry (5 days in UT)
    • Failure to Remove plants or animals
    • Failure to Wash w/HOT water

RISKS

  • Large commercial boats

(huge risk)

  • Owner-pulled boats (less risk)
dreissena became a western u s problem
Dreissena Became A Western U.S. Problem

January 2007 Quagga

  • Lower Colorado River
    • Lake Mead
    • Lake Mohave
    • Lake Havasu
    • Colorado River
    • NV Fish Hatchery
    • CA Reservoir (Copper Basin)
dreissena now a utah problem
Dreissena Now a Utah Problem
  • Top 20 destinations of Lake Mead boaters
    • #3 Lake Powell
    • #11 Pineview Reservoir
    • #12 Bear Lake
    • #14 Willard Bay
    • #19 Jordanelle Reservoir

August 2007– veligers detected in Lake Powell

  • 29% of Utah’s Boaters Use Lake Powell
  • Where Do Lake Powell Boaters Go In Utah ?

EVERY WHERE

impacts industrial plants
IMPACTS: Industrial Plants

Lots of Industries in Utah Use Water

  • Constricted water intakes
  • Constricted water circulation systems
  • Increased:
    • biologic load
    • corrosion
    • plant operation costs
impacts pipelines
IMPACTS: Pipelines

Over 1,120 miles of pipelines in Utah

  • Greatly reduced flow capacity
    • Its not just on the outside; its inside, too
  • 2ND Water Systems: plugged--pipes & sprinklers
  • Increased maintenance cost ????
impacts canals
IMPACTS: Canals

Over 4,573 miles of canals in Utah

  • Open-channel flow capacity reduced
    • Earth-lined: 24% less flow
    • Concrete-lined: 52% less flow
  • Increased maintenance cost ????
impacts reservoirs
IMPACTS: Reservoirs

150 reservoirs @100+ ac (Storage & Recreation)

  • Seasonal Water Level Changes = routine
    • Die Offs (fish & waterfowl)
    • Deteriorated water quality & odor
    • Difficult beach use: clean up $$$$
  • Increased maintenance cost ????
how do we deal with dreissena successful mussel prevention example
HOW DO WE DEAL WITH DREISSENASuccessful Mussel Prevention Example
  • Minnesota: Land of 10,000 Lakes
    • 20 years exposure: commercial & recreation vessels
    • 4 lakes & Mississippi River infested
  • Effective Aquatic Nuisance Species Plan
    • Emphasis on public education & awareness
      • 12 full-time employees
      • 45 summer watercraft inspectors
      • Illegal drive w/any mussel
      • $2.3 million annual budget
emergency responses in utah nps
Emergency Responses in Utah: NPS

NPS Initiated Self-Certification at Lake Powell

  • Education & Outreach
    • Media Coverage
    • “Zap the Zebra” brochures
    • Entry warning signs
    • Self-certification
    • Interdictions
    • Decontamination
    • Containment ????
  • Monitoring & Research
  • Training (UDWR & SP&R and others)
emergency response in utah udwr
Emergency Response in Utah: UDWR

DNR Policy: Prevent Invasion of Dreissena Mussel

  • UDWR: Lead State Agency
    • Inter-state & Interagency Coordination
  • Quagga Education & Implementation Plan
    • Education & Outreach
      • Statewide: Media Coverage
      • Statewide: 250,000 “Zap the Zebra” brochures

(Included all 65,000 UT Boat Owners)

      • Statewide: 1,500 boat launch signs
      • Statewide: 4,500 posters
      • Statewide: sportsmen/agency lectures
    • Interdiction
    • Decontamination of Equipment
      • Containment ????
    • Monitoring & Research
    • Training (UDWR & SP&R and Others)
utah s ais future
Utah’s AIS Future

I. Maintain Sufficient Budget:

FY08 $1,106,500

FY09 $1,640,000

II. Secure Legislation for an Interdiction Act

III. Write AIS Management Plan

IV. Be Vigilant

……………………..……………………..

Memmorandum

From: UDWR

To: Aquatic Invasive Species

Subject:Watch Out, We’re Coming!

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