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Aquatic Biodiversity. Chapter 8. Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs? (1). Biodiversity Formation Important ecological and economic services Moderate atmospheric temperatures Act as natural barriers protecting coasts from erosion Provide habitats

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Core case study why should we care about coral reefs 1
Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs? (1)

  • Biodiversity

  • Formation

  • Important ecological and economic services

    • Moderate atmospheric temperatures

    • Act as natural barriers protecting coasts from erosion

    • Provide habitats

    • Support fishing and tourism businesses

    • Provide jobs and building materials

    • Studied and enjoyed


Core case study why should we care about coral reefs 2
Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs? (2)

  • Degradation and decline

    • Coastal development

    • Pollution

    • Overfishing

    • Warmer ocean temperatures leading to coral bleaching

    • Increasing ocean acidity


The great barrier reef australia
The Great Barrier Reef – Australia

www.theage.com.au/national/scientists-oceanic...


8 1 what is the general nature of aquatic systems
8-1 What Is the General Nature of Aquatic Systems?

  • Concept 8-1A Saltwater and freshwater life zones cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface with oceans dominating the planet.

  • Concept 8-1B The key factors determining biodiversity in aquatic systems are temperature, dissolved oxygen content, availability of food and availability of light and nutrients necessary for photosynthesis.


Most of the earth is covered with water 1
Most of the Earth Is Covered with Water (1)

  • Saltwater: global ocean divided into 4 areas

    • Atlantic

    • Pacific

    • Arctic

    • Indian

  • Freshwater


Saltwater and freshwater biomes
Saltwater and Freshwater Biomes

  • Saltwater: marine

    • Oceans and estuaries

    • Coastlands and shorelines

    • Coral reefs

    • Mangrove forests

  • Freshwater

    • Lakes

    • Rivers and streams

    • Inland wetlands




Most aquatic species live in top middle or bottom layers of water
Most Aquatic Species Live in Top, Middle, or Bottom Layers of Water

  • Plankton

    • Phytoplankton

    • Zooplankton

    • Ultraplankton

  • Nekton

  • Benthos

  • Decomposers


Distribution in water
Distribution in water of Water

  • Key factors in the distribution of organisms

    • Temperature

    • Dissolved oxygen content

    • Availability of food

    • Availability of light and nutrients needed for photosynthesis in the euphotic, or photic, zone


8 2 why are marine aquatic systems important
8-2 Why Are Marine Aquatic of Water Systems Important?

  • Concept 8-2 Saltwater ecosystems are irreplaceable reservoirs of biodiversity and provide major ecological and economic services.


Oceans provide important ecological and economic resources
Oceans Provide Important Ecological of Water and Economic Resources

  • Reservoirs of diversity in three major life zones

    • Coastal zone

      • Usually high NPP

    • Open sea

    • Ocean bottom


NATURAL CAPITAL of Water

Marine Ecosystems

Ecological Services

Economic Services

Climate moderation

Food

CO2 absorption

Animal and pet feed

Nutrient cycling

Pharmaceuticals

Waste treatment

Harbors and transportation routes

Reduced storm impact (mangroves, barrier islands, coastal wetlands)

Coastal habitats for humans

Recreation

Habitats and nursery areas

Employment

Oil and natural gas

Genetic resources and biodiversity

Minerals

Scientific information

Building materials

Fig. 8-4, p. 165


High tide of Water

Sun

Low tide

Depth in meters

Open Sea

Coastal Zone

Sea level

0

50

Photosynthesis

Euphotic Zone

Estuarine Zone

100

Continental shelf

200

500

Bathyal Zone

Twilight

1,000

1,500

2,000

Abyssal Zone

Water temperature drops rapidly between the euphotic zone and the abyssal zone in an area called the thermocline .

3,000

Darkness

4,000

5,000

10,000

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Water temperature (°C)

Fig. 8-5, p. 166


Estuaries and coastal wetlands are highly productive 1
Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Are Highly Productive (1) of Water

  • Estuaries and coastal wetlands

    • River mouths

    • Inlets

    • Bays

    • Sounds

    • Salt marshes

    • Mangrove forests

  • Seagrass Beds

    • Support a variety of marine species

    • Stabilize shorelines

    • Reduce wave impact



Fig. 8-7b, p. 167 in a Temperate Area





Galapagos
Galapagos Australia


Seagrasses

Real flowering plants, related to grasses Australia

Ecologically important

Threatened

Seagrasses


Seagrasses are not algae
Seagrasses are NOT algae! Australia

  • Algae lack a special chamber for young plant to develop

  • Algae lack specialized leaves, stems, and roots

now.ifmo.ru/ biofoul/hk.htm


Seagrasses are plants
Seagrasses are PLANTS! Australia

  • Special chamber for young plant development

  • Have specialized structures: leaves, stems, roots

  • Specialized structures for reproduction


Habitat
Habitat Australia

http://www.dep.state.fl.us/coastal/habitats/seagrass/awareness_day/connection.htm



Habitat1
Habitat Australia


Estuaries and coastal wetlands are highly productive 2
Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Are Highly Productive (2) Australia

  • Important ecological and economic services

    • Coastal aquatic systems maintain water quality by filtering

      • Toxic pollutants

      • Excess plant nutrients

      • Sediments

    • Absorb other pollutants

    • Provide food, timber, fuelwood, and habitats

    • Reduce storm damage and coast erosion



Rocky and sandy shores host different types of organisms
Rocky and Sandy Shores Host Different Types of Organisms Australia

  • Intertidal zone

    • Rocky shores

    • Sandy shores: barrier beaches

  • Organism adaptations necessary to deal with daily salinity and moisture changes

  • Importance of sand dunes


Hermit crab Australia

Sea star

Shore crab

High tide

Periwinkle

Anemone

Sea urchin

Mussel

Low tide

Sculpin

Barnacles

Kelp

Sea lettuce

Monterey flatworm

Rocky Shore Beach

Beach flea

Nudibranch

Peanut worm

Tiger beetle

Blue crab

Clam

Dwarf olive

High tide

Sandpiper

Ghost shrimp

Low tide

Silversides

Mole shrimp

Barrier Beach

White sand macoma

Sand dollar

Moon snail

Fig. 8-9, p. 169



Coral reefs are amazing centers of biodiversity
Coral Reefs Are Amazing Centers Australiaof Biodiversity

  • Marine equivalent of tropical rain forests

  • Habitats for one-fourth of all marine species


Gray reef shark Australia

Sea nettle

Green sea turtle

Parrot fish

Fairy basslet

Blue tang

Sergeant major

Algae

Brittle star

Hard corals

Banded coral shrimp

Coney

Phytoplankton

Symbiotic algae

Coney

Zooplankton

Blackcap basslet

Sponges

Moray eel

Bacteria

Producer to primary consumer

Secondary to higher-level consumer

Primary to secondary consumer

All consumers and producers to decomposers

Fig. 8-11, p. 171


The open sea and ocean floor host a variety of species
The Open Sea and Ocean Floor Host a Variety of Species Australia

  • Vertical zones of the open sea

    • Euphotic zone

    • Bathyal zone

    • Abyssal zone: receives marine snow

      • Deposit feeders

      • Filter feeders

    • Upwellings

  • Primary productivity and NPP


8 3 how have human activities affected marine ecosystems
8-3 How Have Human Activities Affected Marine Ecosystems? Australia

  • Concept 8-3 Human activities threaten aquatic biodiversity and disrupt ecological and economic services provided by saltwater systems.


Human activities are disrupting and degrading marine systems
Human Activities Are Disrupting and Degrading Marine Systems Australia

  • Major threats to marine systems

    • Coastal development

    • Overfishing

    • Runoff of nonpoint source pollution

    • Point source pollution

    • Habitat destruction

    • Introduction of invasive species

    • Climate change from human activities

    • Pollution of coastal wetlands and estuaries


8 4 why are freshwater ecosystems important
8-4 Why Are Freshwater Ecosystems Important? Australia

  • Concept 8-4 Freshwater ecosystems provide major ecological and economic services and are irreplaceable reservoirs of biodiversity.


Water stands in some freshwater systems and flows in others 1
Water Stands in Some Freshwater Systems and Flows in Others (1)

  • Standing (lentic) bodies of freshwater

    • Lakes

    • Ponds

    • Inland wetlands

  • Flowing (lotic) systems of freshwater

    • Streams

    • Rivers


Water stands in some freshwater systems and flows in others 2
Water Stands in Some Freshwater Systems and Flows in Others (2)

  • Formation of lakes

  • Four zones based on depth and distance from shore

    • Littoral zone

    • Limnetic zone

    • Profundal zone

    • Benthic zone


NATURAL CAPITAL (2)

Freshwater Systems

Ecological Services

Economic Services

Climate moderation

Food

Nutrient cycling

Drinking water

Waste treatment

Irrigation water

Flood control

Hydroelectricity

Groundwater recharge

Transportation corridors

Habitats for many species

Genetic resources and biodiversity

Recreation

Employment

Scientific information

Fig. 8-14, p. 174



Some lakes have more nutrients than others
Some Lakes Have More Nutrients (2)Than Others

  • Oligotrophic lakes

    • Low levels of nutrients and low NPP

  • Eutrophic lakes

    • High levels of nutrients and high NPP

  • Mesotrophic lakes

  • Cultural eutrophication leads to hypereutrophic lakes



Freshwater streams and rivers carry water from the mountains to the oceans
Freshwater Streams and Rivers Carry Water from the Mountains to the Oceans

  • Surface water

  • Runoff

  • Watershed, drainage basin

  • Three aquatic life zones

    • Source zone

    • Transition zone

    • Floodplain zone


Lake to the Oceans

Rain and snow

Glacier

Rapids

Waterfall

Tributary

Flood plain

Oxbow lake

Salt marsh

Deposited sediment

Delta

Ocean

Source Zone

Transition Zone

Water

Sediment

Floodplain Zone

Stepped Art

Fig. 8-17, p. 176


Case study dams deltas wetlands hurricanes and new orleans
Case Study: Dams, Deltas, Wetlands, Hurricanes, and New Orleans

  • Coastal deltas, mangrove forests, and coastal wetlands: natural protection against storms

  • Dams and levees reduce sediments in deltas: significance?

  • New Orleans, Louisiana, and Hurricane Katrina: August 29, 2005

  • Global warming, sea rise, and New Orleans




Freshwater inland wetlands are vital sponges 1
Freshwater Inland Wetlands Are OrleansVital Sponges (1)

  • Marshes

  • Swamps

  • Prairie potholes

  • Floodplains

  • Arctic tundra in summer


Freshwater inland wetlands are vital sponges 2
Freshwater Inland Wetlands Are OrleansVital Sponges (2)

  • Provide free ecological and economic services

    • Filter and degrade toxic wastes

    • Reduce flooding and erosion

    • Help to replenish streams and recharge groundwater aquifers

    • Biodiversity

    • Food and timber

    • Recreation areas


8 5 how have human activities affected freshwater ecosystems
8-5 How Have Human Activities Affected Freshwater Ecosystems?

  • Concept 8-5 Human activities threaten biodiversity and disrupt ecological and economic services provided by freshwater lakes, rivers, and wetlands.


Human activities are disrupting and degrading freshwater systems
Human Activities Are Disrupting and Degrading Freshwater Systems

  • Impact of dams and canals on rivers

  • Impact of flood control levees and dikes along rivers

  • Impact of pollutants from cities and farms on rivers

  • Impact of drained wetlands


Case study inland wetland losses in the united states
Case Study: Inland Wetland Losses in the United States Systems

  • Loss of wetlands has led to

    • Increased flood and drought damage

  • Lost due to

    • Growing crops

    • Mining

    • Forestry

    • Oil and gas extraction

    • Building highways

    • Urban development


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