MUSLIM WORLD LEAGUE International Commission on Scientific Signs in The Quran and The Sunnah, Makkah AL-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia (Cairo Office) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE HOLY QURAN AND COSMOLOGY Professor M. A. Mosalam SHALTOUT MUSLIM WORLD LEAGUE International Commission on Scientific Signs in The Quran and The Sunnah, Makkah AL-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia (Cairo Office) E-mail : mosalamshaltout@hotmail.com http : www.m-shaltout.com Abstract

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THE HOLY QURAN AND COSMOLOGY

Professor M. A. Mosalam SHALTOUT

MUSLIM WORLD LEAGUE

International Commission on Scientific Signs

in The Quran and The Sunnah,

Makkah AL-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia

(Cairo Office)

E-mail : mosalamshaltout@hotmail.com

http : www.m-shaltout.com


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Abstract

The Holy Quran contains many scientific signs in Astronomy and Cosmology. The Holy Quran classified to 30 chapters contain 119 Sura, where each Sura contains many Ayat (verses). There are more than one thousand (1160) verses in the Holy Quran speak about Astronomy, Cosmology and natural sciences. Our paper contains 43 verses (In Arabic) and their translation in English (The Meaning of Glorious Quran), from the Muntakab as published by Supereme Council for Islamic Affairs, Cairo. The 43 verses speak about: Earth, Planets, Moon, Sun, sunrise and sunset twilights, dawn, the day and night sky, stars and navigation, serious, zodiacs, the lunar calendar, the relation between solar and lunar calendars, the age of cosmos, the expanding universe, the big bang, and the big crush.


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Part 1 : Astronomy in the Holy Quran

1. Zodiacs

{وَلَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا فِي السَّمَاء بُرُوجاً وَزَيَّنَّاهَا لِلنَّاظِرِينَ}. (الحجر: 16).

God most high says in the Quran:

“It is we who have set out the Zodiacal signs in the heavens, and made them fair seeming to (all) beholders”. (15:16)


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2. Polars, stars and navigation

{وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ النُّجُومَ لِتَهْتَدُواْ بِهَا فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ}. (الأنعام: 97).

The Glorious Quran points to this phenomena:

“it is who maketh the stars (as beacons) for you, that ye may guide yourselves, with their help, through the dark spaces of land and sea: we detail our signs for people who know”. (6:97).

{ وعلامات وَبِالنَّجْمِ هُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ } (النحل: 16).

“and marks and sign posts; and by the stars (men) guide themselves" (16:16).


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  • 3. Sun and Moon

  • The sun is mentioned in the Holy Quran 33 times, and the moon is mentioned 27 times.

  • {مَا خَلَقَ اللّهُ ذَلِكَ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ يُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ}. (يونس: 5).

  • The glorious Quran discriminate, between self emission and reflection as indicated in the following verses:

  • “It is he who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time). nowise did God create this but in truth and righteousness. (thus) both he explain his signs in detail, for those who understand”. (10:5)

  • {تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ فِي السَّمَاء بُرُوجًا وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَاجًا وَقَمَرًا مُّنِيرًا}. (الفرقان: 61).

  • The difference between sun and moon will be made clearer by further quotations from the Quran:

  • “Blessed is He Who made constellations in the skies, and placed therein a Lamp and a Moon giving light”. (25:61)


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4. The lunar calendar

{هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاء وَالْقَمَرَ نُوراً وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُواْ عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ مَا خَلَقَ اللّهُ ذَلِكَ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ يُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ}. (يونس: 5).

The Holy Quran underlined the usefulness of observing the moon’s movements in calculating time and in learning count:

“It is he who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time). nowise did God create this but in truth and righteousness. (thus) both he explain his signs in detail, for those who understand”. (10:5)

{وَالْقَمَرَ قَدَّرْنَاهُ مَنَازِلَ حَتَّى عَادَ كَالْعُرْجُونِ الْقَدِيمِ}. (يس: 39).

God describes the syndic month in the Quran:

“And the Moon, we have measured for her mansions (to traverse) till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date stalk”. (36:39).


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5. The relation between the solar and lunar calendars.

{وَلَبِثُوا فِي كَهْفِهِمْ ثَلَاثَ مِائَةٍ سِنِينَ وَازْدَادُوا تِسْعًا. قُلِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا لَبِثُوا لَهُ غَيْبُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَبْصِرْ بِهِ وَأَسْمِعْ مَا لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا يُشْرِكُ فِي حُكْمِهِ أَحَدًا}. (الكهف: 25 ـ 26).

The Glorious Quran hinted at the relation between the Julian (solar) and the lunar calendar: God says:

“So they stayed in their cave three hundred years, and (some) add nine (more).

Say: God knows best how long they stayed: with him is (the knowledge of) the secrets of the heavens and the earth: how clearly he sees, how finely he hears (everything) they have no protector other than him; nor does he share his command with any person whatsoever” (18:25-26).

This means the 300 solar years is equal to 309 lunar years or

(1 solar year = 1.03 lunar year).


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6. The twilight, night sky, and the full moon

{فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالشَّفَقِ. وَاللَّيْلِ وَمَا وَسَقَ . وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا اتَّسَقَ}. (الانشقاق: 16-18).

“So I do call to witness the ruddy glow of Sunset (twilight). The Night and its Homing, And the Moon in her Fullness” (84:16-18).

7. Day light and dawn

{وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلاهَا}. الشمس: 3.

God most high points to sun’s scattering of day light as one of his mighty works in nature:

“By the day as it shows up the sun’s glory” (91:3).

{وَاللَّيْلِ إِذْ أَدْبَرَ . وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا أَسْفَرَ}. (المدثر: 33ـ34).

“And by the night as it retreateth and by the dawn as it shineth forth”. (74:33-34).


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8. Winter and Summer Solstices

{رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقَيْنِ وَرَبُّ الْمَغْرِبَيْنِ })الرحمن: 17(.

“ He is Lord of the two Easts and Lord of the two Wests ”. (55 : 17).

The movements of the sunrise on the horizon from winter to summer solstices and the inverse.

{فَلا أُقْسِمُ بِرَبِّ الْمَشَارِقِ وَالْمَغَارِبِ إِنَّا لَقَادِرُونَ}) المعارج : 40 (.

“ I do call to witness the Lord of orients (easts) and occidents (wests)” (70:40).


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9. Holy Quran and Serious

{وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ رَبُّ الشِّعْرَى })النجم : 49 (.

“ That he is the Lord of Serious” (53 : 49).

The Pagan Arabs Worshiped Serious star as a divinity, but the Glorious Quran states that God is the Lord, Creater and Cherisher of the most magnificent part of creation, and worship must be due to him alone.

10. Solar and Lunar eclipses

{فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ . وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ . وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ}[القيامة : 7 ـ 10].

“ At length when the sight is dazed and the moon disappears, and the sun and the moon are joined together”. (75 : 7-9).


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11. The difference between the lengths of the days and nights

{إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لآيَاتٍ لِّأُوْلِي الألْبَابِ }(آل عمران : 190).

“ Behold ! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs of men of understanding”(3:190).

The summer of the polar region

{حتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَ مَطْلِعَ الشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَطْلُعُ عَلَى قَوْمٍ لَّمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُم مِّن دُونِهَا سِتْراً}(الكهف: 90).

“Until, when he come to the rising of the sun. He found it rising on a people for whom we had provided no covering protection against the sun”. (18 : 90).

No Covering protection against the sun, means the sun stays above the horizon for long periods (at the summer of the polar region).


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12. The own motion of the moon and sun (dynamic cosmos)

{وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ }

)الأنبياء : 33(.

“(Good is) The one who created the night, the day, the sun and the moon. Each one is swimming (traveling) in an orbit with its own motion” (21::33).

Let us think deeply in the following Quranic verses :

{لا الشَّمْسُ يَنبَغِي لَهَا أَن تُدْرِكَ الْقَمَرَ وَلا اللَّيْلُ سَابِقُ النَّهَارِ وَكُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ})يس : 40 (.

“It is not permitted to the sun to catch up with the moon, nor can the night out strip the day. Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to law)”. (36 : 40).


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13. The solar System and planets

{إِنَّا زَيَّنَّا السَّمَاء الدُّنْيَا بِزِينَةٍ الْكَوَاكِبِ} )الصافات : 6 (.

“We have indeed adorned the lowest heaven with an ornament, the planets “ (38 : 6)

It is possible that the expression in the Quran “lowest heaven” means the “solar system”? it is known that among the celestial bodies nearest to us, there are no other permanent bodies a part from the planets and the sun which is the only star in the system. It is difficult to see what other heavenly bodies could be meant by the ornament, if not the planets. The translation gives would therefore seem to be correct and the Quran refers to the existence of the planets.

The planets do not have light of their own. This fact is indicated in the light verse.

{.......الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ ...... } )النور : 35 (.

“The glass is as if it were a planet glittering like a pearl, lit from a blessed tree”. (24 : 35) .

Here the reference is to the projection of light onto a body that reflects it (glass) and gives the body the glitter of a pearl like a planet that reflects sun light.

Planet glittering like a pearl was Venus at the ancient Arabs before Islam.


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14. Spherical Earth and Helocentric system

Refering to the Glorious Quran we conclude the following result:

The Quran did not defend the false geocentric theory although it was inspired at a time when this theory had no competition. But the Quran pointed to the motion of earth.

Spherical shape of the earth:

{وَالأرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا})النازعات : 30(.

“And the Earth after that (moreover) hath he extended “(79:30).

Here the translator used the verb "extended" for the Arabic verb Daha! Where Daha means (He made the earth as egg in the shape).

The spherical shape of the earth does not contradict the Quranic verbs.


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}وَالأَرْضَ مَدَدْنَاهَا ........{ .)ق : 7 (.

“And the earth we have spread it out”. (50 : 7).

i.e. The Earth is round and yet it appears stretched out as a vast expanse. The word “Spread out” gives also the meaning of a sphere because if you walk on the earth you will not reach an end. Thus it is actually spread out although it is spherical in shape.

The relation between the shadow and the sun position in the sky:

{أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى رَبِّكَ كَيْفَ مَدَّ الظِّلَّ وَلَوْ شَاء لَجَعَلَهُ سَاكِناً ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَا الشَّمْسَ عَلَيْهِ دَلِيلاً . ثُمَّ قَبَضْنَاهُ إِلَيْنَا قَبْضاً يَسِيراً {)االفرقان : 45ـ46)

“ Hast thou not seen how the lord has spread the shade. If he willed , he could have made it stationary. Moreover we made the sun its guide and we withdraw it towards us easily”. (25 : 45 – 46).

The phenomenon of shadows and the fact that they move is simply explained today by the Earth’s spinning.


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Part II: Cosmology in the Holy Quran


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Unanswered questions in cosmology

Among the unanswered questions in Cosmology are these:

1. What preceded the Big Bang?

2. What is the exact age of the universe?

3. Will the universe expand forever?

4. Does the universe contain a significant amount of invisible matter?

5. Will the expansion stop in the future and the galaxies begin to approach each other in a big crush?


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1. Birth of the universe (Big Bang).

The Glorious Quran present in two phenomena that constituted the basic process of the formation of the universe:

{أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقاً فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاء كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلا يُؤْمِنُونَ }. ) الأنبياء: 30(.

“Do not the unbelievers see the heavens and the earth were joined together, when we clove them asunder” (21: 30)

وقوله سبحانه{ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاء وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ...........}. (فصلت : 11).

“Moreover (God) turned to the heaven when it was smoke” (41: 11).

The important things to remember at present are the following:

a) The statement of the existence of a gaseous mass with fine particles (smoke).

b) The reference to a separation process of a primary single mass whose elements were initially fused together.


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  • 2. The creation of the cosmos in six days.

  • {إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثاً ........}. (الأعراف: 54).

  • “Your lord is God, who created the heavens and the earth in six days and is firmly established on the Throne (of authority), he covers the day with the night which is in haste to follow it”. (7:54).

  • The “day” in the Quran represents a stage or “long length of time” as far as creation or days of God is concerned: God most high says in the Quran:


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  • {اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ مَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا شَفِيعٍ أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ . يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاء إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَ }. (السجدة: 4ـ5).

  • “It is God Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all between them, in six Days, and in firmly established on the Throne (of authority): ye have none, besides Him, to protect or intercede (for you): will ye not then receive admonition? . He rules (all) affairs from the heavens to the earth: in the end will (all affairs) go up to Him, on a Day, the space whereof will be (as) a thousand years of your reckoning”. (32:4-5).


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  • Also the relativity of time is mentioned in another Quranic verse where the day is compared to (50,000) fifty thousands years!

  • {تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ} (المعارج: 4).

  • “The angels and the Spirit ascend unto Him in a Day the measure whereof is (as) fifty thousand years”. (70:4)

  • Therefore the “day” does not mean a day as we reckon it (24 hours).


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3. The Seven Heavens (Many Heavens).

{أَلَمْ تَرَوْا كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقاً . وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُوراً وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجاً}. (نوح: 15ـ16).

“Did you see how God created seven heavens one above another and made the moon a light therein and made the sun a lamp?” (71:15-16).

{وَبَنَيْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعاً شِدَاداً وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجاً وَهَّاجاً} (النبأ 12ـ13).

“We have built above you seven strong (heavens) and placed a blazing lamp” (78:12-13).


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In the Quran the number 7 is used many times for various numerical quantities, it often carries the meaning of “many” although we do not know exactly why this meaning of the figure was used. The Greek and Romans also seem to have used the number 7 to mean an undefined idea of plurality.

In the Quran, the number 7 refers to the heavens themselves (Samawat), also the seven roads, of the seven heavens and the seven (similar number) earths are mentioned (Extra planets similar to the earth). We must take into consideration that apart from the Quran, we often find the number 7 meaning plurality in texts of prophet Muhammad’s time, or from the first centuries following him, which record his words (Hadith).


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4. Gravitation

{اللّهُ الَّذِي رَفَعَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ...... }. (الرعد: 2).

“God is the one who raised the heavens without any pillars you can see, then he firmly established himself on the Thorne and He subjected the sun and the moon…” (13:2).

{خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا........ }. (لقمان: 103).

“God created the heavens without any pillars you can see” (31:10).


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{....... وَيُمْسِكُ السَّمَاء أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى الأَرْضِ إِلا بِإِذْنِهِ .......}. (الحج: 65).

“God holds back the sky from falling on the earth unless by his leave”. (22:65).

{الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْبَانٍ }. (الرحمن: 5).

{وَالسَّمَاء رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ}. (الرحمن: 7).

“The sun and the moon follows courses (exactly) calculated…. And the sky (God) raised it high, and he has set up the balance”. (55:5-7).

{أَفَلَمْ يَنظُرُوا إِلَى السَّمَاء فَوْقَهُمْ كَيْفَ بَنَيْنَاهَا وَزَيَّنَّاهَا وَمَا لَهَا مِن فُرُوجٍ}. (ق: 6).

“Do they not look at the sky above them, how we have built it and adrorned it, and there are no rifts in it” (50:6).


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5. The expanding universe:

The following verse of the glorious Quran hints frankly at the expanding universe :

God Says :

{وَالسَّمَاء بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ}. (الذاريات : 47).

“The Heaven we have built with power, verily. We are expanding it“. (51:47)


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6. Matter and antimatter in cosmos.

The concept of the existence of matter and antimatter in the universe may be understood through the following universal quranic fact:

{وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ}. (الذاريات: 49).

“And of every thing we have created pairs, that ya may receive instruction”. (51:49).

Thus the annihilation is actually probable since the pair production is a universal rule designed by God most high.


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7. The Big Crush in Holy Quran

The following Quranic verses may point to the expected big crush:

} إِذَا السَّمَاء انفَطَرَتْ . وَإِذَا الْكَوَاكِبُ انتَثَرَتْ . وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ فُجِّرَتْ{. (الانفطار 1-3)

“When the sky is cleft asunder; when the plants are scattered, when the seas are suffered to burst forth”. (82-1-3).

} وَحُمِلَتِ الأَرْضُ وَالْجِبَالُ فَدُكَّتَا دَكَّةً وَاحِدَةً }. (الحاقة : 14(.

“And the earth is moved, and its mountains and they are crushed at one stroke”. (69 : 14).

} َلا إِذَا دُكَّتِ الْأَرْضُ دَكّاً دَكّاً }. (الفجر : 21)

“Nay, When the earth is pounded”. (89 : 21).

}.......إِنَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ .... }. (يونس:4)

“It is he who beginneth the process of creation, and repeateth it ”. (10: 4).


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Conclusions

From our present study we conclude the following:

  • The Holy Quran is rich by the verses related to astronomy and cosmology, where the both were very interested for the people in the Arab Peninsula during the 7th century A.D. where the observational astronomy was the main culture of the ancient Arabs in the desert with the clear skies for navigation.

  • The Holy Quran not subject to the Greek or the Ptolemaic theories about astronomy and cosmology in the 7th century, and not affected by the ancient Greek philosophy, and have independent characteristics (Special Personality).

  • The Holy Quran describe in more detail some astronomical phenomena as the dwan, the sunrise, the noon, the sunset, and the evening twilight, where all of them are correlated with the prayers of the Moslems. Also, the Holy Quran describe in detail the visibility of the new crescent, for its importance for Ramadan, and El-Haij.

  • The Holy Quran is the most holy book correlated with the sky (Astronomy and Cosmology) from the believe that: The God is stay above the heavens.

  • The Holy Quran is not against the idea of the many heavens (multi cosmos), but strict on the God is alone for all the heavens and cosmos (One God for all the universe).


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References

  • The Glorious Quran and modern science, by Mansour Hassab El-Naby, General Egyptian book organization, Cairo, Egypt, (1990), (in English).

  • The Muntakab, by Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Cairo Egypt, (2006), (in Arabic and English), about the meaning of the Glorious Quran.

  • Islam in science age, by M.A. Gamrawy, (in Arabic), Dar El-Ketab El-Hadith, Cairo, Egypt, (1973).

  • Iron from supernova and our solar system formation (The fall of iron from heaven “sky” as mentioned in the Holy Quran); Mosalam Shaltout, The Seasonal Journal of the International committee on the scientific signs in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, article 13, vol. 10, Muslim World League, Makka Al-Mukurrmah, Saudi Arabia, (in Arabic), (2003).

  • Serious star in the Holy Quran; Mosalam Shaltout, The Seasonal Journal of the International committee on the scientific signs in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, article 11, vol. 11 (in Arabic) (2002).

  • The reflected heaven; Mosalam Shaltout, The Seasonal Journal of the International committee on the scientific signs in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, article 2, vol. 17, (in Arabic) (2004).

  • El-Kabaa El-Musharafaa and the four geographical directions and its astronomical orientation; Mosalam Shaltout, The Seasonal Journal of the International committee on the scientific signs in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, article 1, vol. 22, (in Arabic) (2006).

  • Supernova Ali Ibn Radwan and the Holness of the stationary cosmos in the thinking of medieval; Mosalam Shaltout, The Seasonal Journal of the International committee on the scientific signs in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, article 5, vol. 28, (in Arabic) (2007).


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Thank You


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