Chemical Bonds
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Chemical Bonds. Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons. Gain 4 electrons. C would like to N would like to O would like to. Gain 3 electrons. Gain 2 electrons. Electron Dot Structures.

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Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons

Gain 4 electrons

  • C would like to

  • N would like to

  • O would like to

Gain 3 electrons

Gain 2 electrons


Electron dot structures
Electron Dot Structures as to have 8 electrons

Symbols of atoms with dots to represent the valence-shell electrons

1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18

H He:

    

LiBe B  C  N  O : F :Ne :

     

    

Na Mg AlSiPS:Cl  :Ar :

   


Chemical bond
Chemical bond as to have 8 electrons

  • A chemical bond forms when outer-shell electrons of different atoms come close enough to each other to interact and rearrange themselves into a more stable arrangement.


Types of chemical bonds
Types of Chemical Bonds as to have 8 electrons

  • Ionic bonds formed when metal atoms combined with non-metal atoms

    • Metallic bonds formed when metal atoms combined with metal atoms.

    • Covalent bonds formed when non-metal atoms combined with non-metal atoms.


Ionic Compounds as to have 8 electrons


1). Ionic bond as to have 8 electrons – electron from Na is transferred to Cl, this causes a charge imbalance in each atom. The Na becomes (Na+) and the Cl becomes (Cl-), charged particles or ions.


The as to have 8 electronscoordination number of an ionic lattice is written

as a ratio x:y

How many chlorine ions surround

each sodium ion and vice versa?

NaCl coordination number- 6:6


Hardness and brittleness
Hardness and Brittleness as to have 8 electrons

  • Figure 6.4 The repulsion between like charges causes this sodium chloride crystal to shatter when it is hit sharply.


Electrical conductivity
Electrical Conductivity as to have 8 electrons

  • In the solid form, ions in sodium chloride are held in the crystal lattice and are not free to move so cannot conduct electricity.

  • When the solid melts the ions are free to move.

  • In a similar way, when sodium chloride dissolves in water, the ions separate and are free to move towards the opposite charge.


Properties of ionic compounds
Properties of Ionic Compounds as to have 8 electrons

  • Forms crystal composed of 3d array of ions (ionic network lattice)

  • Have high melting and boiling temperatures.

  • Are hard but brittle

  • Do NOT conduct electricity in the solid state

  • They will only conduct electricity if they are melted or dissolved in water.


Structure
Structure as to have 8 electrons

  • From the properties we can conclude:

    • The forces between the particles are strong.

    • There are no free-moving electrons present, unlike in metals.

    • There are charged particles present, but in solid state they are not free to move.

    • When an ionic compound melts, however, the particles are free to move and the compound will conduct electricity.



Naming binary ionic compounds contain 2 different elements
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds formation of:Contain 2 different elements

  • Name the metal first, then the nonmetal as -ide.

    Examples:

    NaCl sodium chloride

    ZnI2 zinc iodide

    Al2O3 aluminum oxide


Practise
Practise formation of:

Complete the names of the following binary compounds:

Na3N ________________

KBr ________________

Al2O3 ________________

MgS _________________________


Solution
Solution formation of:

Complete the names of the following binary compounds:

Na3N sodium nitride

KBr potassium bromide

Al2O3 aluminum oxide

MgS magnesium sulfide


Transition metals
Transition Metals formation of:

Many form 2 or more positive ions

1+ 2+ 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+

Ag+ Cd2+ Cu+,Cu2+ Fe2+, Fe3+

silver cadmium copper(I) ion iron(II) ion

ion ion copper (II) ion iron(III) ion

Zn2+

zinc ion


Write symbols for these
Write symbols for these: formation of:

  • Potassium ion

  • Magnesium ion

  • Copper (II) ion

  • Chromium (VI) ion

  • Barium ion

  • Mercury (II) ion



Criss cross method
Criss-Cross Method formation of:

  • Write the symbols for the ions side by side. Write the cation first.

    • Al3+ O2-

  • Cross over the charges by using the absolute value of each ion’s charge as the subscript for the other ion.

    • Al2 O3

  • 3. Check the subscripts and divide them by their largest common factor to give the smallest possible whole-number ratio of ions. Then write the formula.

    • Al2O3

      • For Al: 2 x 3+ = 6+ For O: 3 x 2- = 6-


Criss cross method1
Criss-Cross Method formation of:

Example 1: Calcium and Oxygen

O2-

Ca2+

Ca2+

Calcium

Ca2O2

O2-

Oxide

CaO


Criss cross method2
Criss-Cross Method formation of:

Example 2: Magnesium and Phosphorus

P3-

Mg2+

Mg2+

Magnesium

P3-

Phosphorus

Mg3P2

  • The sum of the cation charge and the sum of the anion charge must cancel each other so that the compound formed is neutral.


Practise1
Practise formation of:

1. The formula for the ionic compound of

Na+ and O2- is

1) NaO 2) Na2O 3) NaO2

2. The formula of a compound of aluminum and chlorine is

1) Al3Cl 2) AlCl2 3) AlCl3

3. The formula of Fe3+ and O2- is

1) Fe3O2 2) FeO3 3) Fe2O3


Solution1
Solution formation of:

A. The formula for the ionic compound of

Na+ and O2- is

2) Na2O

B. The formula of a compound of aluminum and chlorine is

3) AlCl3

C. The formula of Fe3+ and O2- is

3) Fe2O3


Sample problem 7 1
Sample Problem 7-1 formation of:

  • Write the formulas for the binary ionic compounds formed between the following elements:

    A. lithium and fluorine

    B. lithium and oxygen


Names of variable ions
Names of Variable Ions formation of:

Use a roman number after the name of a metal that forms two or more ions

Transition metals and

the metals in groups 4A and 5A

FeCl3(Fe3+) iron (III) chloride

CuCl (Cu+ ) copper (I) chloride

SnF4 (Sn4+) tin (IV) fluoride

PbCl2 (Pb2+) lead (II) chloride

Fe2S3 (Fe3+) iron (III) sulfide


Ii stock system roman numerals
II. Stock system (roman numerals) formation of:

  • Example:

Fe2+

Fe3+

  • Iron(II)

  • Iron(III)

CuCl2

CuCl

  • copper(I) chloride

  • copper(II) chloride


Sample problem 7 2
Sample Problem 7-2 formation of:

a. Write the formula and give the name for the compound formed from the ions Cr3+ and F-.

b. Write the name for Cu3N2.



Learning check
Learning Check make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions:

FeBr2 iron (_____) bromide

Cu2O copper (_____) oxide

SnCl4 ___(_____ ) ______________

Fe2O3 ________________________

CuS ________________________


Solution2
Solution make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions:

FeBr2 iron ( II ) bromide

Cu2O copper ( I ) oxide

SnCl4tin (IV) chloride

Fe2O3iron (III) oxide

CuS copper (II) sulfide


Learning check1
Learning Check make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

Name the following compounds:

A. CaO

1) calcium oxide 2) calcium(I) oxide

3) calcium (II) oxide

B. SnCl4

1) tin tetrachloride 2) tin(II) chloride

3) tin(IV) chloride

C. Co2O3

1) cobalt oxide 2) cobalt (III) oxide

3) cobalt trioxide


Solution3
Solution make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

Name the following compounds:

A. CaO 1) calcium oxide

B. SnCl43) tin(IV) chloride

C. Co2O32) cobalt (III) oxide


Learning check2
Learning Check make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions:

A. Na+, S2-

1) NaS 2) Na2S 3) NaS2

B. Al3+, Cl-

1) AlCl3 2) AlCl 3) Al3Cl

C. Mg2+, N3-

1) MgN 2) Mg2N3 3) Mg3N2


Solution4
Solution make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

A. Na+, S2-

2) Na2S

B. Al3+, Cl-

1) AlCl3

C. Mg2+, N3-

3) Mg3N2


Practise make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

Name the following ionic compounds:

Na2O K2S MgBr2 AlN Ba3As2

CaCl2 AgCl AlH3 ZnI2 Li3P


N make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.omenclature of binary ionic compounds

Answers:

Na2O = sodium oxide K2S = potassium sulfide

MgBr2 = magnesium bromide AlN = aluminum nitride

Ba3As2 = barium arsenide CaCl2 = calcium chloride

AgCl = silver chloride AlH3 = aluminum hydride

ZnI2 = zinc iodide Li3P = lithium phosphide


Iii polyatomic ions
III. Polyatomic Ions make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

  • A charged group of covalently bonded atoms

    • Combine with ions of opposite charge to form ionic compounds

  • Ex: NH4+, NO3-, SO42-


N make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.omenclature of binary ionic compounds

Some polyatomic anions that you must know:

NO3- = nitrate NO2- = nitrite

SO4 2- = sulfate SO32- = sulfite

PO43- = phosphate PO33- = phosphite

CO32- = carbonate

HCO31- = hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate

OH- = hydroxide CN- = cyanide

C2H3O2- = acetate C2O42- = oxalate


Iii polyatomic ions1
III. Polyatomic Ions make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

  • Most common ion is given the ending –ate.

  • One less oxygen than –ateends in–ite.

  • One less oxygen than –iteis given the prefixhypo.

  • One more oxygen than -ateis given the prefixper.

ClO3-

ClO4-

ClO2-

ClO-

  • perchlorate

  • chlorate

  • chlorite

  • hypochlorite

NO3-

NO2-

  • nitrate

  • nitrite


Sample problem 7 3
Sample Problem 7-3 make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

a. Write the formula for potassium sulfate.

b. Write the formula for calcium carbonate.

c. Write the formula for tin(IV) sulfate.


Ionic nomenclature practice
Ionic Nomenclature Practice make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.

  • potassium chloride

  • magnesium nitrate

  • copper(II) chloride

 KCl

  • K+ Cl-

  • Mg2+ NO3-

 Mg(NO3)2

 CuCl2

  • Cu2+ Cl-


N make the 2+ or the 3+ ion.omenclature of binary ionic compounds

Naming salts composed of the polyatomic ions is the same as with the monatomic anions. Metal name then polyatomic name.

NaOH sodium hydroxide Ba(NO3)2 barium nitrate

H2SO4 hydrogen sulfate CsNO2 cesium nitrite

Sometimes there is a common name:

KHCO3potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium bicarbonate

  • Note: the polyatomic anions must be memorized.

Name the following ionic compounds:

NaHCO3 K2SO3 MgSO4 KCN H2PO4

Ca(OH)2 NH4NO3 Zn(NO3)2 Li3PO4 HNO3


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