Proteins. …..a recap. Characteristics of Proteins. Are made up of monomers These are called amino acids There are 20 amino acids And they all have the general molecular structure:. http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211.fall2000.web.projects/Danielle%20Arnold/Intoduction.html.
Proteins are coded for by DNA (genes), transcribed (re-written) to mRNA and then translated into protein molecules at the ribosome.
You’ll learn a little more about this year when we study cell structure, a lot more next year when you study the molecular basis of genetics.
Levels of Structure of a Protein
Roughly linear forming strands or sheets, fibrous proteins
One or more polypeptide chains take on a rounded, globular shape
Also check out pg 44-47, Bio-12
Overview: What would happen to your cells if they made a poisonous chemical? You might think that they would die. In fact, your cells are always making poisonous chemicals. They do not die because your cells use enzymes to break down these poisonous chemicals into harmless substances.
In this lab, you will study an enzyme that is found in the cells of many living tissues. The name of the enzyme is catalase (KAT-uh-LAYSS); it speeds up a reaction which breaks down hydrogen peroxide, a toxic chemical, into 2 harmless substances--water and oxygen. The reaction is as follows: 2H2O2 ----> 2H2O + O2 This reaction is important to cells because hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced as a byproduct of many normal cellular reactions. If the cells did not break down the hydrogen peroxide, they would be poisoned and die.
Many of these autoxidation reactions do not produce hydrogen peroxide directly, but rather superoxide (the product of adding one electron to an oxygen molecule). In order to get rid of superoxide (which is more toxic than hydrogen peroxide) the body also contains lots of superoxide dismutase, that converts the superoxide into water and hydrogen peroxide. One of the most interesting sources of superoxide in the body is that produced by white blood cells when they encounter harmful microorganisms. The white blood cells produce very large amounts of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and even hypochlorous acid (household bleach!) to kill the germs, just like in the TV ads.