Everything you ever wanted to know about intelligence but were afraid to ask
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Everything you ever wanted to know about Intelligence, but were afraid to ask!. Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. Intelligence. If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain? What kinds of abilities do you think you’d want to test?. Binet and Simon. Assessment:

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Everything you ever wanted to know about Intelligence, but were afraid to ask!

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Everything you ever wanted to know about intelligence but were afraid to ask

Everything you ever wanted to know about Intelligence, but were afraid to ask!

Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.


Intelligence

Intelligence

  • If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain?

  • What kinds of abilities do you think you’d want to test?


Binet and simon

Binet and Simon

  • Assessment:

    • Attention

    • Perception

    • Memory

    • Numerical reasoning

    • Verbal comprehension


Mental age

Mental Age

  • Children tested, ages 3-13

  • Items passed by most 6-year-olds, but a few 5 year olds reflect the mental functioning of 6-year old, etc.

  • Binet’s understanding – an individual’s level of mental development relative to others.

  • Stern – Intelligence quotient –

    • IQ = MA / CA x 100

    • Therefore, it mental age is lower than chronological age, the score is less than 100.


Definition of intelligence

Definition of Intelligence

  • Piaget: adaptive thinking / action

    • “The form of equilibrium towards which the successive adaptation or exchanges between the organism and environment are directed.”

    • Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development

      • Cognitive growth occurs within the zone where the child receives help to be able to understand or do something independently.


Definitions of intelligence

Definitions of Intelligence

  • Wechsler

    • The global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

    • Conclusion: No consensus.


Intelligence testing

Intelligence Testing

  • One Score Tests

    • Stanford – Binet Intelligence Scales – 2 – adult

    • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV – 6-16 years.


The normal curve

The normal curve

  • WAIS-IV

    • 130 and above – very superior

    • 120-129 – Superior

    • 110-119 – High average

    • 90-109- Average

    • 80-89 – Low Average

    • 70-79 – Borderline

    • 69 and below – Extremely Low


Issues with extreme scores

Issues with Extreme Scores

  • Diagnosis of Gifted and Talented

  • Diagnosis of Mental Retardation

  • Do we do a good job with extreme scores?

  • Difference between intelligence and mastery tests, e.g. Woodcock-Johnson.


Verbal iq

Verbal IQ

  • Learned/absorbed knowledge

  • Knowledge of history, literary/biological facts

  • Knowledge relating to competent functioning in the world

  • Knowledge of mathematics

  • Knowledge of the meaning of specific words


Performance iq

Performance IQ

  • Measure: unfamiliar tasks

  • Speed is critical

  • Measures on-the-spot analytical thinking

  • Measures how well a person can master new problem

  • IQ measures person’s standing as compared to a reference group


Viq piq fsiq

VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ

  • VIQ = measures acquired knowledge, verbal reasoning, attention to verbal materials.

  • PIQ = measures fluid reasoning, spatial processing, attentiveness to detail, visual-motor integration.

  • FSIQ = overall summary score – estimates an individual’s general level of intellectual functioning.

  • What exactly does that mean?


Factor analytic approach

Factor Analytic Approach

  • Factor Analysis – a statistical procedure for identifying clusters of tests or test items (called factors) that are highly correlated with each other and unrelated to other items.


Standardization

Standardization

  • Sample

  • Cultural bias of tests

  • Stanford-Binet

  • WAIS-III to IV


Vygotsky again

Vygotsky again

  • Vygotsky – “test, train, retest”

  • Brown and Ferrara (1985)

    • Not all average IQ children are alike

    • Low IQ children versus High IQ children


Theories of intelligence

Theories of Intelligence

  • Piaget – intelligence is the adaptation to one’s environment.

  • Triarchic Theory – Sternberg

    • Intelligence comes from:

      • Analytical intelligence

      • Creative intelligence

      • Practical intelligence


Horn and cattell

Horn and Cattell

  • Intelligence = the abilities that distinguish humans from other animals as well as an individual from another individual.

  • There is more than one kind of ability or intelligence.

  • This is a theory of ability.


Horn and cattell1

Horn and Cattell

  • Nine broad abilities

    • Fluid reasoning

    • Acculturation knowledge

    • Short-term apprehension retention or STM

    • Fluency of retrieval from LT storage or LTM

    • Visual Processing – Imaging

    • Auditory processing

    • Processing speed

    • Correct decision speed

    • Quantitative knowledge


Horn and cattell2

Horn and Cattell

  • Fluid Intelligence = ability to perceive relationships, ability to adapt, ability to learn new material. Independent of culture and formal training.

  • Crystallized Intelligence – completely dependent on culture and formal training or learning. Increases with age.

  • Both important for success in life.


Gardner theory of multiple intelligences

Gardner – theory of Multiple Intelligences

  • Atypical populations

  • Jagged cognitive profile

  • Training in one area influence skills in another area?

  • Gardner (1993) defines intelligence = the ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings.


Gardner s eight frames of mind

Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind

  • Gardner believes in 8 different types of intelligence

    • Verbal skills

    • Mathematical skills

    • Spatial skills

    • Bodily-kinesthetic skills

    • Musical

    • Interpersonal

    • Intrapersonal

    • Naturalistic – observe patterns in nature


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