Everything you ever wanted to know about intelligence but were afraid to ask
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Everything you ever wanted to know about Intelligence, but were afraid to ask!. Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. Intelligence. If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain? What kinds of abilities do you think you’d want to test?. Binet and Simon. Assessment:

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Everything you ever wanted to know about Intelligence, but were afraid to ask!

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Everything you ever wanted to know about intelligence but were afraid to ask
Everything you ever wanted to know about Intelligence, but were afraid to ask!

Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.


Intelligence
Intelligence were afraid to ask!

  • If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain?

  • What kinds of abilities do you think you’d want to test?


Binet and simon
Binet and Simon were afraid to ask!

  • Assessment:

    • Attention

    • Perception

    • Memory

    • Numerical reasoning

    • Verbal comprehension


Mental age
Mental Age were afraid to ask!

  • Children tested, ages 3-13

  • Items passed by most 6-year-olds, but a few 5 year olds reflect the mental functioning of 6-year old, etc.

  • Binet’s understanding – an individual’s level of mental development relative to others.

  • Stern – Intelligence quotient –

    • IQ = MA / CA x 100

    • Therefore, it mental age is lower than chronological age, the score is less than 100.


Definition of intelligence
Definition of Intelligence were afraid to ask!

  • Piaget: adaptive thinking / action

    • “The form of equilibrium towards which the successive adaptation or exchanges between the organism and environment are directed.”

    • Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development

      • Cognitive growth occurs within the zone where the child receives help to be able to understand or do something independently.


Definitions of intelligence
Definitions of Intelligence were afraid to ask!

  • Wechsler

    • The global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

    • Conclusion: No consensus.


Intelligence testing
Intelligence Testing were afraid to ask!

  • One Score Tests

    • Stanford – Binet Intelligence Scales – 2 – adult

    • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV – 6-16 years.


The normal curve
The normal curve were afraid to ask!

  • WAIS-IV

    • 130 and above – very superior

    • 120-129 – Superior

    • 110-119 – High average

    • 90-109- Average

    • 80-89 – Low Average

    • 70-79 – Borderline

    • 69 and below – Extremely Low


Issues with extreme scores
Issues with Extreme Scores were afraid to ask!

  • Diagnosis of Gifted and Talented

  • Diagnosis of Mental Retardation

  • Do we do a good job with extreme scores?

  • Difference between intelligence and mastery tests, e.g. Woodcock-Johnson.


Verbal iq
Verbal IQ were afraid to ask!

  • Learned/absorbed knowledge

  • Knowledge of history, literary/biological facts

  • Knowledge relating to competent functioning in the world

  • Knowledge of mathematics

  • Knowledge of the meaning of specific words


Performance iq
Performance IQ were afraid to ask!

  • Measure: unfamiliar tasks

  • Speed is critical

  • Measures on-the-spot analytical thinking

  • Measures how well a person can master new problem

  • IQ measures person’s standing as compared to a reference group


Viq piq fsiq
VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ were afraid to ask!

  • VIQ = measures acquired knowledge, verbal reasoning, attention to verbal materials.

  • PIQ = measures fluid reasoning, spatial processing, attentiveness to detail, visual-motor integration.

  • FSIQ = overall summary score – estimates an individual’s general level of intellectual functioning.

  • What exactly does that mean?


Factor analytic approach
Factor Analytic Approach were afraid to ask!

  • Factor Analysis – a statistical procedure for identifying clusters of tests or test items (called factors) that are highly correlated with each other and unrelated to other items.


Standardization
Standardization were afraid to ask!

  • Sample

  • Cultural bias of tests

  • Stanford-Binet

  • WAIS-III to IV


Vygotsky again
Vygotsky again were afraid to ask!

  • Vygotsky – “test, train, retest”

  • Brown and Ferrara (1985)

    • Not all average IQ children are alike

    • Low IQ children versus High IQ children


Theories of intelligence
Theories of Intelligence were afraid to ask!

  • Piaget – intelligence is the adaptation to one’s environment.

  • Triarchic Theory – Sternberg

    • Intelligence comes from:

      • Analytical intelligence

      • Creative intelligence

      • Practical intelligence


Horn and cattell
Horn and Cattell were afraid to ask!

  • Intelligence = the abilities that distinguish humans from other animals as well as an individual from another individual.

  • There is more than one kind of ability or intelligence.

  • This is a theory of ability.


Horn and cattell1
Horn and Cattell were afraid to ask!

  • Nine broad abilities

    • Fluid reasoning

    • Acculturation knowledge

    • Short-term apprehension retention or STM

    • Fluency of retrieval from LT storage or LTM

    • Visual Processing – Imaging

    • Auditory processing

    • Processing speed

    • Correct decision speed

    • Quantitative knowledge


Horn and cattell2
Horn and Cattell were afraid to ask!

  • Fluid Intelligence = ability to perceive relationships, ability to adapt, ability to learn new material. Independent of culture and formal training.

  • Crystallized Intelligence – completely dependent on culture and formal training or learning. Increases with age.

  • Both important for success in life.


Gardner theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner – theory of Multiple Intelligences were afraid to ask!

  • Atypical populations

  • Jagged cognitive profile

  • Training in one area influence skills in another area?

  • Gardner (1993) defines intelligence = the ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings.


Gardner s eight frames of mind
Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind were afraid to ask!

  • Gardner believes in 8 different types of intelligence

    • Verbal skills

    • Mathematical skills

    • Spatial skills

    • Bodily-kinesthetic skills

    • Musical

    • Interpersonal

    • Intrapersonal

    • Naturalistic – observe patterns in nature


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