台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫. Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) Ping-Yin Kuan National Chengchi University 11/16/2004. Main Features.
Taiwan Education Panel Survey
National Chengchi University
Analytical Ability (Y1)
-- Junior high sample (1st year students)
-- Senior high/vocational high sample (2nd year students)
-- Junior college (2nd year students)
- Causal Analysis
- Multi-level Analysis
- Attrition in Follow- ups
- Stratified by urban/rural, public/private, and school types
- Sample school programs first, then classes, and then students. In principle, 4 classes and 15 students in each class were sampled.
- Oversample certain populationsSampling Design
Two basic issues:
To facilitate cross-national comparisons,adopt the same number of categorical income and parental education for Taiwan and the U.S.
K11 vs K7 = 0.95
K11 vs K12 = 0.97
K12 vs K7 = 0.89
K11 vs K7 = 0.92
K11 vs K12 = 0.998
K12 vs K7 = 0.91
-- Strong evidence has emerged that single-parent and stepparent families have adverse effects on children’s educational achievement.
-- Some studies in the U.S. also found that children of single-parent families with cohabitating grandparent(s) performed quite similarly to those of intact families.
-- In Taiwan, not only nuclear intact families are still the dominant family type, but the multigenerational intact families composed by two biological parents, unmarried children, and at least a grandparent still consist about 11% of households in Taiwan (2000 census).
Even though the rate of cohabitating with older parents is declining, non-cohabiting adult children still feels obligated to support their parents financially.
Co-residing grandparents may provide more psychological support for the grandchildren, convey parents’ expectation, give advice to the grandchildren, and constantly monitor the grandchildren’s activities at home.
The presence of grandparents may give additional linkage to relatives, communities, and schools and, hence, contribute to grandchildren’s learning.
--Dependent Variables: IRT Ability Score
(1) Nuclear intact (reference) (65%; 67%)
(2) Multigenerational intact (17%; 18% )
(3) Multigenerational single-parent (3 %; 2%)
(4) Single-parent (8% )
(5) All other types of non-intact (15%; 13%)
Economic: Monthly family income
Socialization: Attend school events; talk about school; talk about inner thoughts; checking homework; educational expectation
Network: visit relatives; know other parents
-- Previous research found a weak positive relationship.
-- High SES parents tend to have higher academic expectation and be more involved in the children’s education, which in turn make their children perform better academically.
-- Previousstudies have found positive relationship between SES and mental health. But some studies also found high SES or high achieving students have more distress. This relationship may be due to the higher achievement pressure of the high family SES.
-- Authoritative parenting style (responsive but firm control) has been found to be positive to children’s academic achievement and adjustment in general.
-- Psychological control, on the other hand, has been found to be related to adolescents’ poor psychological and behavioral outcomes. But no report is on its effect on academic achievement.
-- Specific parental involvement strategies in education include all three parenting dimensions: support, behavioral control, and psychological control (such as high parental expectation).
-- Dependent Variable: 14 items selected from The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) that measured frequencies of depressive, anxious, aggressive, and psychosomatic symptoms and suicidal ideation. A factor score was derived from the 14 items by using the confirmatory factor analysis modeling.
-- Independent Variables:
1. Academic achievement: IRT ability score.
2. Family SES: Parents’ educational level and monthly income.
2. Authoritative parenting: items related to parents’ acceptance, non-punitive behavior, and listening to inner thoughts.
3. Parental involvement in education:
a. Involvement related to support/warmth and behavioral control including ‘helping with school work’, ‘checking school work’, and ‘supervision after school’.
b. Involvement related to psychological control including ‘talks about future schooling plans’ and ‘talks focused on academics’.
-- Control Variables:
1. Student’s sex
2. Stressful family events experienced: Parents’ divorce, separation, or death; parents very ill; parents with psychological illness; alcoholic parents; sudden economic fall of the family.
-- Public access: Online application; no school and class id; 70% of the original sample.
-- Restricted access: Restricted to academic and governmental institutions; needs to sign an agreement of confidentiality; could study class effects, but not school effects.
-- On-site access: Further restriction (at least a Ph.D. candidates with advisors’ endorsement). Nearly full access to the data.