Matching plateau and journey with your annual brome control program
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Matching PLATEAU and JOURNEY with Your Annual Brome Control Program. Jim Crosby. Management Program. Fuel Breaks Green strips Restoration Release Re-vegetating After Fire Restoration. Avg of 1722 seeds/ft 2 Seed bank capable to renew population for 2 to 3 years without density reduction.

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Management program l.jpg
Management Program Program

  • Fuel Breaks

  • Green strips

  • Restoration

    • Release

    • Re-vegetating

  • After Fire Restoration


Important bromes phenology implications l.jpg

Avg of 1722 seeds/ft Program2

Seed bank capable to renew population for 2 to 3 years without density reduction

Herbicides aid establishment of desirable species by limiting brome population

- Must have at least a 3 year control plan, utilize IPM

Important Bromes Phenology & Implications


Important bromes phenology implications4 l.jpg
Important Bromes Phenology & Implications Program

  • Utilizes native plant interspace = need residual herbicide

  • Can germinate from 2-2.5” – need rain to incorporate herbicide

Rocky, South facing slopes easily invadedhard to restore


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TILLERING Program

DORMANT

Invasive annual grass Lifecycle Winter annual

July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun


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Tillering Program

Cheatgrass LifecycleSpring germination possible

Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun


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Mechanical Program

  • Cultivation / disking

    • favors annuals

    • Damages perennial root systems

    • Relocates seeds, extending survival

  • W/Herbicide

    • Disking followed by Plateau pre-emergence

    • Disking followed by Journey post-emergence

    • Rate/environment will determine longevity of control


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Mechanical Program

  • Mowing

    • Clipped 12x in one season, still produced a seedhead

    • Reduces cheatgrass height / potential flame length

  • W/Herbicide

    • Promotes duff layer breakdown

    • Utilize constant mowing or mowing/raking to prepare for herbicide treatment


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Cultural Program

  • Fire

    • Theory: Three consecutive burns can reduce populations

      • Reduce desirable species

      • Difficulty carrying fire 3rd year

      • Results =~ 50% control

    • Fall burn typically promotes annuals / fire loving

    • Brush fire typically destroys cheatgrass seed

  • W/Herbicide

    • Use fire to remove duff layer

    • Allow ~2wks for carbon to blow off

    • Apply PLATEAU or JOURNEY


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Cultural Program

  • Competitive plant species

    • Consider use of non-native, non-invasive grass

Bluebunch Wheatgrass

Poor Competitor

Sandberg’s bluegrass

Crested Wheatgrass

Competes well

Needle&thread


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Cultural Program

  • Grazing

    • Spring grazing / non-selective

      • Reduces seed production (does not stop seed production)

      • Remove animals to allow natives to recover

    • Goats: browse everything, including brush

    • Sheep & Horses: browse close to ground

    • Cattle: Pull off leaves

    • Allow 2-5 days fordigestive track to clear

  • W/Herbicide

    • Aid in reduction of thatch

    • Heavily graze spring followed by PLATEAU late summer or fall, pre-emeregence to cheatgrass germination



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/ Program


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GLYPHOSATE Program

MATURE

EARLY

TILLERING

DORMANT

Chemical


Pre emergence l.jpg
Pre-emergence Program

Optimum events

Spray

Rain / herbicide incorporation

Germination/herbicide uptake

Bromus death


Pre emergence16 l.jpg

RESULT = only 30% to 70% control when treat at growth stage

Pre-emergence

Undesirable event sequence

Rain

Brome germination

Herbicide application

Additional brome growth / some brome control

Rain / herbicide incorporation

Root growth out of treated zone


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Chemical stage




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Unable to stageremove duff


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Downy brome control stageFall Application

Application: Nov 3, 1999

Rating date: May 3, 2000

% Downy brome control

PLATEAU

oz/A

All treatments

+ 1qt MSO


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Conservation Targets and Goals stage

  • Fuel Breaks

  • Green strips

  • Restoration

    • Release

    • Re-vegetating

  • After Fire Restoration


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Create Fuel break to stageprotect life / property

  • How close to subdivision(s)?

    • Ignition sources

    • spread

  • What disturbances are promoting cheatgrass?

  • Cheatgrass duff layer?

  • Desirable species remaining?


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Fire Modeling: Creating fire breaks–rate of fire spread stage

6 mile/hr wind 12 mile/hr wind

6 min mile

Rate of Spread (m/min)

10 min mile

40 min mile

Rate of spread (m/min) at 50% slope and two wind speeds and 5% fine fuel moisture comparing Plateau treatment to a non-treated area.

Data collected and analyzed by Synergy Resource Solutions, Inc.


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Fire Modeling: Creating fire breaks – flame length stage

6 mile/hr wind 12 mile/hr wind

Cannot be contained from head fire

Flame Length (m)

Hand

tools

Flame lenghth (m) at 50% slope and two wind speeds and 5% fine fuel moisture comparing Plateau treatment to a non-treated area.

Data collected and analyzed by Synergy Resource Solutions, Inc.


Fuel break l.jpg

Operation order stage

Assess area for annual grass

Complete disturbance

Remove brush

Disking

other

Apply Plateau or Journey

Seed area if needed for soil stabilization and annual brome competition

Fuel break


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Conservation Targets and Goals stage

  • Fuel Breaks

  • Green strips

  • Restoration

    • Release

    • Re-vegetating

  • After Fire Restoration


Green strip l.jpg

Operation order stage

Assess area for annual brome

Prepare seed bed

Thatch removal

Prescribed burn

Over grazing

Mowing/racking

other

Apply Plateau or Journey

Seed area

Green strip


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Conservation Targets and Goals stage

  • Fuel Breaks

  • Green strips

  • Restoration

    • Release

    • Re-vegetating

  • After Fire Restoration


Release of rangeland from annual brome l.jpg
Release of rangeland from stageannual brome

  • Over grazed?

  • Season of grazing?

    • Can season be changed?

  • Dense mat of cheatgrass thatch?

  • Desirables species present?

  • How close to Ag production fields


Release of rangeland from annual brome31 l.jpg

Most likely operation to succeed stage

Most cost effective

Immediate benefits

Reduce fire risk

Habitat recovery

Determine cause of significant brome increase

Adjust operations to reduce factors contributing to brome increase

Apply Plateau

#1

Release of rangeland from annual brome


Thatch established planting l.jpg
Thatch stageEstablished Planting

Remove thatch / fire,

grazing, mowing w/raking


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Release of Rangeland from stage Annual Brome

  • Important considerations

    • Desired plant tolerance

    • Application rate (gallons/acre)

    • Application equipment

    • Shadow effect of brush

    • Long-term program

      • Follow-up treatment in natural interspace ecosystem

      • Biological control/ responsible grazing

      • Promotion of desirable species to out compete re-invasion


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Conservation Targets and Goals stage

  • Fuel Breaks

  • Green strips

  • Restoration

    • Release

    • Re-vegetating

  • After Fire Restoration


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Restoration - Revegetation stage

  • Operation order

    • Prepare seed bed

      • Thatch removal

        • Prescribed burn

        • Over grazing

        • Mowing/racking

        • Other

    • Apply Plateau or Journey

    • Seed area same season


Conservation targets and goals36 l.jpg
Conservation Targets and Goals stage

  • Fuel Breaks

  • Green strips

  • Restoration

    • Release

    • Re-vegetating

  • After Fire Restoration


After fire restoration l.jpg
After Fire Restoration stage

  • Number of past fires?

  • Cheatgrass seed population?

  • Desirable species recovery expected?

  • Seed mix species?

  • Planting method/timing?


Prepared seed bed new planting l.jpg
Prepared seed bed stageNew Planting


After fire restoration39 l.jpg

WITH PLATEAU stage

Wildfire May-August

Allow carbon residue to dissipate (~2wks)

Apply Plateau (or Journey) after late July up to germination of brome

Seed at the desired time

WITH JOURNEY

Wildfire May-August

Allow carbon residue to dissipate (~2wks)

Apply Journey after brome germinate, up to early tiller

Seed after herbicide application

After Fire Restoration


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Important Points for Success: stage

  • Long-term management plan

    • Monitor results

    • Utilize competitive plant species

    • Manage to give desirable species the advantage

    • Consider thatch complications

    • Spray herbicide prior to planting!


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