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Destinations and Tourist Services. Chapter 12. Tourism Units and Categories. Units Domestic travel Inbound tourism Outbound tourism Categories Internal tourism (domestic inbound) National tourism (domestic outbound) International tourism (inbound outbound). Tourism Criteria.

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Destinations and Tourist Services

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Destinations and tourist services

Destinations and Tourist Services

Chapter 12

Tourism units and categories

Tourism Units and Categories


  • Domestic travel

  • Inbound tourism

  • Outbound tourism


  • Internal tourism (domestic inbound)

  • National tourism (domestic outbound)

  • International tourism (inbound outbound)

Tourism criteria

Tourism Criteria

  • Purpose of trip

  • Distance of travel

  • Duration of trip

  • Residence of traveler

  • Mode of transportation

Reasons for travel

Reasons for Travel

  • Leisure, recreation, holiday

  • Visiting friends or relatives

  • Business and professional

  • Health treatment

  • Religious or pilgrimages

  • Homeland or cultural discovery

Travel cycle

Travel Cycle

Trip planning and expectations

Tourist leaves home >

> Uses transportation to destination

• Experiences destination

• Gathers trip markers

< Uses transportation from destination

Tourist arrives back home

Recollections of trip from markers

Tourists in red square

Tourists in Red Square

Tourism market segments

Tourism Market Segments


  • Adventureexperience

  • Budgetvalue, deals

  • Familythings for everyone

  • Gay quiet locations

  • Luxuryspecial service

  • Baby boomerdiscovery orientation

  • Eco-travelernature orientation



  • WTO - coordinates global travel

  • NTO - provide marketers with research data, workshops and tradeshows, familiarization trips, Internet sites, trade manuals, brochure development, joint marketing ventures, reservation system, consumer protection, and general industry advisory services.

Travel motivations

Travel Motivations

  • Hedonism - self-gifting, indulgence

  • Self-improvement -new sporting skills; culture, art, and culinary immersions

  • Spiritual needs - meditation, retreats

Travel markers and souvenirs

Travel Markers and Souvenirs

  • Local products - arts,crafts, food

  • Markers - clothing, artifacts with destination name on them

  • Miniatures - tiny attraction replicas

  • Pieces of the rock - natural elements

  • Treasures - artifacts

  • Visual representations - photos, books

Destination brand positioning map

Destination Brand Positioning Map

High emotional pull

High celebrity Low celebrity


Low emotional pull

Destination brand benefit pyramid

Destination Brand Benefit Pyramid

Level 5

Brand character

Level 4

Brand value for repeaters

Level 3

Psychological benefits

and emotional rewards from visit

Level 2

Benefits of destination features

Level 1

Verifiable objectives and measurable characteristics

of place

Branding cities

Branding Cities

  • Proactive, cooperative partnerships

  • Appeal to “creative class”

  • Livable city with brand attributes

  • Positive tourist perceptions

  • Stands for something

  • Appearance

  • Internet images

Branding san francisco

Branding San Francisco

Place brand promotion strategies

Place Brand Promotion Strategies

  • Film and fashion shoot locations

  • Media/product liaisons = branded entertainment

  • Magazine special advertising sections

  • Advertising brand constellations

Marketing tourism services

Marketing Tourism Services


  • Hotels groups, corporations

  • Tour operators singles and couples, alumni associations

  • Transportationpassengers, charters

  • Attractionslocal residents, day visitors, schools

Hospitality industry

Hospitality Industry

  • Non-serviced - furnished units, hostels, flathotels

  • Serviced - luxury hotels and resorts, spas

    • Image management

    • Sales force

    • Advertising

    • Editorials, travel television

Spa market

Spa Market

Stand alone or hotel affiliated

  • Club spas

  • Day spas

  • Resort and hotel spas

  • Other spas



  • Kids market

  • Timeshares

  • Rating systems

  • Internet booking sites

Transportation industry

Transportation Industry

  • Cruise ships

  • Homeport packaging

  • Niche cruises

  • Destination brand ports

Packaged tours

Packaged tours

  • Standardized

    • Price guarantees

    • Convenience

    • Accessibility to consumers

    • Image and branding in brochures

    • High standards , sense of security

  • All-inclusive

    • Transportation and accommodations packaged in advance

    • Accommodations with optional transport; hotels and attractions marketed together

    • Hybrid or modular packages on short notice

Capadoccia turkey star wars film set

Capadoccia, Turkey: Star Wars film set

Eco tourism


  • Marketed to niche traveler

  • Benefits to host country

  • Educational

  • Works toward sustainable development:

    - philosophy for healthy balance between tourists and local resources



  • How should a travel agency identify prospective buyers for eco-tours?

  • What resources are available to a destination marketer to brand a place? What combination of inputs and financial support provide a successful marketing effort?

  • What is the image of “brand America”? What aspects of the United States contribute to the global audiences’ perception of the country? How can the U.S. brand be redefined to improve this image?

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