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Destinations and Tourist Services. Chapter 12. Tourism Units and Categories. Units Domestic travel Inbound tourism Outbound tourism Categories Internal tourism (domestic inbound) National tourism (domestic outbound) International tourism (inbound outbound). Tourism Criteria.

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Tourism units and categories
Tourism Units and Categories


  • Domestic travel

  • Inbound tourism

  • Outbound tourism


  • Internal tourism (domestic inbound)

  • National tourism (domestic outbound)

  • International tourism (inbound outbound)

Tourism criteria
Tourism Criteria

  • Purpose of trip

  • Distance of travel

  • Duration of trip

  • Residence of traveler

  • Mode of transportation

Reasons for travel
Reasons for Travel

  • Leisure, recreation, holiday

  • Visiting friends or relatives

  • Business and professional

  • Health treatment

  • Religious or pilgrimages

  • Homeland or cultural discovery

Travel cycle
Travel Cycle

Trip planning and expectations

Tourist leaves home >

> Uses transportation to destination

• Experiences destination

• Gathers trip markers

< Uses transportation from destination

Tourist arrives back home

Recollections of trip from markers

Tourism market segments
Tourism Market Segments


  • Adventure experience

  • Budget value, deals

  • Family things for everyone

  • Gay quiet locations

  • Luxury special service

  • Baby boomer discovery orientation

  • Eco-traveler nature orientation


  • WTO - coordinates global travel

  • NTO - provide marketers with research data, workshops and tradeshows, familiarization trips, Internet sites, trade manuals, brochure development, joint marketing ventures, reservation system, consumer protection, and general industry advisory services.

Travel motivations
Travel Motivations

  • Hedonism - self-gifting, indulgence

  • Self-improvement -new sporting skills; culture, art, and culinary immersions

  • Spiritual needs - meditation, retreats

Travel markers and souvenirs
Travel Markers and Souvenirs

  • Local products - arts,crafts, food

  • Markers - clothing, artifacts with destination name on them

  • Miniatures - tiny attraction replicas

  • Pieces of the rock - natural elements

  • Treasures - artifacts

  • Visual representations - photos, books

Destination brand positioning map
Destination Brand Positioning Map

High emotional pull

High celebrity Low celebrity

Value Value

Low emotional pull

Destination brand benefit pyramid
Destination Brand Benefit Pyramid

Level 5

Brand character

Level 4

Brand value for repeaters

Level 3

Psychological benefits

and emotional rewards from visit

Level 2

Benefits of destination features

Level 1

Verifiable objectives and measurable characteristics

of place

Branding cities
Branding Cities

  • Proactive, cooperative partnerships

  • Appeal to “creative class”

  • Livable city with brand attributes

  • Positive tourist perceptions

  • Stands for something

  • Appearance

  • Internet images

Place brand promotion strategies
Place Brand Promotion Strategies

  • Film and fashion shoot locations

  • Media/product liaisons = branded entertainment

  • Magazine special advertising sections

  • Advertising brand constellations

Marketing tourism services
Marketing Tourism Services


  • Hotels groups, corporations

  • Tour operators singles and couples, alumni associations

  • Transportation passengers, charters

  • Attractions local residents, day visitors, schools

Hospitality industry
Hospitality Industry

  • Non-serviced - furnished units, hostels, flathotels

  • Serviced - luxury hotels and resorts, spas

    • Image management

    • Sales force

    • Advertising

    • Editorials, travel television

Spa market
Spa Market

Stand alone or hotel affiliated

  • Club spas

  • Day spas

  • Resort and hotel spas

  • Other spas


  • Kids market

  • Timeshares

  • Rating systems

  • Internet booking sites

Transportation industry
Transportation Industry

  • Cruise ships

  • Homeport packaging

  • Niche cruises

  • Destination brand ports

Packaged tours
Packaged tours

  • Standardized

    • Price guarantees

    • Convenience

    • Accessibility to consumers

    • Image and branding in brochures

    • High standards , sense of security

  • All-inclusive

    • Transportation and accommodations packaged in advance

    • Accommodations with optional transport; hotels and attractions marketed together

    • Hybrid or modular packages on short notice

Capadoccia turkey star wars film set
Capadoccia, Turkey: Star Wars film set

Eco tourism

  • Marketed to niche traveler

  • Benefits to host country

  • Educational

  • Works toward sustainable development:

    - philosophy for healthy balance between tourists and local resources


  • How should a travel agency identify prospective buyers for eco-tours?

  • What resources are available to a destination marketer to brand a place? What combination of inputs and financial support provide a successful marketing effort?

  • What is the image of “brand America”? What aspects of the United States contribute to the global audiences’ perception of the country? How can the U.S. brand be redefined to improve this image?