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Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Improving Educational Opportunities for All Students. California Department of Education Language Policy and Leadership Office. Program History. Began in 1960s in Dade County Florida with the influx of Cuban refugees

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Two way bilingual immersion improving educational opportunities for all students l.jpg

Two-Way Bilingual ImmersionImproving Educational Opportunities for All Students

California Department of Education

Language Policy and Leadership Office


Program history l.jpg

Program History

  • Began in 1960s in Dade County Florida with the influx of Cuban refugees

  • Private bilingual schools formed to develop bilingualism for Cuban refugees

  • English speaking families began enrolling their children

California Department of Education

Language Policy and Leadership Office


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Program History

  • Two-Way Programs began in California between 1980-1986

    • Public school programs established in

      • San Francisco

      • San Jose

      • Windsor

      • Santa Monica-Malibu

      • Oakland

California Department of Education

Language Policy and Leadership Office


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Nationally and in California

  • In the nation

    • 329 programs in 29 states + D.C.

      • (Center for Applied Linguistics 2006)

  • In California

    • 197 programs

    • 89 districts

    • 5 languages

      • (California Department of Education Language Policy Office 2006)

California Department of Education

Language Policy and Leadership Office


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Two-Way Bilingual ImmersionDefinition

  • A program that develops bilingualism and biliteracy in English and a second language by integrating English learners (Els) with English speakers (proficient in English)

California Department of Education

Language Policy and Leadership Office


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Definition

  • Target language(other that English) is used for minimum of 50% of the time

  • English is used for minimum of 10% of time

  • Instruction in and through both languages

  • Periods in which only one language is used at a time

  • Combines maintenance bilingual education model with foreign language immersion model

California Department of Education

Language Policy and Leadership Office


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Program Goals

  • Bilingualism:

    • High levels of proficiency in English and a second language

  • Biliteracy:

    • High levels of academic proficiency in English and a second language

  • Multicultural competence:

    • Understanding of different cultures and development of high self esteem

  • California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in California: Compliance With Proposition 227

    • Alternative Education Programs: Alternative School Waivers may be granted pursuant to Ed. Code section 58505

      • Visit Department website at www.cde.ca.gov. click on Educational Options Office

    • Charter Schools:

      • Visit Department website at www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cs/

      • Parental Waivers


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    Parental Waivers

    • Parents of Els must yearly sign a waiver request

    • English learners who have never been enrolled in California schools must receive 30 calendar daysof sheltered English instruction prior to being placed in two-way bilingual immersion programs.


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    Program Models

    • Different bilingual programs have different academic and linguistic outcomes

    • Different models needed because of varying student populations and community conditions

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Bilingual Program Models for English Learners

    • Transitional bilingual education-TBE (early exit)

      • Goal: monolingualism (English proficiency)

        • Generally viewed as remedial program which replaces home language with English

        • Literacy instruction begins in L1 and replaced by English- usually within 3 years

    • Maintenance or developmental bilingual education (late exit)

      • Goal: bilingualism

        • Maintenance and full development of first language while adding English proficiency

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Bilingual Program Models for English Speakers

    • Foreign Language Immersion

      • Goal: bilingualism

        • Uses child’s second language for minimally 50% of the day.

        • Based on Canadian immersion models.

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Program Models for English Learners and English Speakers

    • Two-Way Bilingual Immersion (TWBI)

      • Sometimes referred to as dual language immersion programs

    • Combines features of maintenance bilingual programs for English learners and foreign language immersion for English speakers

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Rationale for Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs

    • Additive bilingual environment for all students

      • Second language best acquired by language minority students (Els) when first language established

      • Second language best acquired by language majority students (Eng. speakers) through immersion in second language

    • Knowledge learned through one language facilitates acquisition of second language knowledge

    • Students will benefit from cognitive advantages with development of bilingualism and biliteracy

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Essential Characteristics for Success

    • Strong leadership and administrative support

    • Qualified instructional personnel

    • Program duration of 5-7 years

    • Balance in classroom composition

    • Focus on academic achievement

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Essential Characteristics for Success

    • Adequate exposure to second language

    • Positive and reciprocal school instructional climate

    • Monolingual delivery

    • Promotion of the benefits of bilingualism

    • Strong home/school collaboration

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Strong Leadership and Administrative Support

    • Support required from

      • school Board and District administration

    • Support and knowledge of program from

      • site administration

      • resource personnel

    • Provisions for

      • ongoing professional development

      • planning time for teachers

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Qualified Instructional Personnel

    • Knowledge of

      • academic content and curriculum

      • theories and strategies for development of biliteracy

      • TWBI model

    • Native like proficiency in languages of instruction

    • Culturally competent

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Program Duration of 5-7 Years

    • Extended amounts of time are needed to fully develop second language academic proficiency (minimum of 5-7 years)

    • Parents agree to a six year commitment of students in program

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Balance in Classroom Composition

    • Establish classroom with linguistic equity or balance

      • Ideally 50% English learners and 50% English speakers

    • Classroom composition should never fall below one-third of either linguistic group

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Focus on Academic Achievement

    • Language taught within context of academic content

    • Curriculum based on state/district standards

    • Development of high level language skills in both languages

    • Adequate instructional materials that represent ethnic and religious diversity

      • both instructional and library

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Adequate Exposure to Second Language

    • Create opportunities for second language use through

      • formal and informal language structures

      • academic, social and technical language

      • teacher-directed instruction and student collaborative group activities

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Positive and Reciprocal School Instructional Climate

    • Includes

      • high expectations for all students

      • school that values languages and culture

      • opportunities for collaborative groupings for facilitation of student interaction and language use

      • faculty committed to equity and trained in multicultural understanding

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Monolingual Delivery

    • Separates languages for instructional purposes

    • Establishes motivation for student language use

    • Teacher adheres to language of instruction

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Promotion of the Benefits of Bilingualism

    • Increase the status of minority language through

      • Providing presentations from bilingual professionals

      • Encouraging use of language among parents and school staff

      • Including study of the language and culture of the students

      • Encouraging use of target language outside of classroom environment

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Strong Home/school Collaboration

    • Provide parent education opportunities in:

      • two-way bilingual design and benefits

      • second language acquisition and biliteracy theory

      • English and target language classes

      • school curriculum

      • helping their children with homework

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Strong Home/School Collaboration

    • Visit experienced TWBI programs

    • Invite parents of TWBI students to talk with prospective parents

    • Provide access to resource library with bilingual articles, books, tapes, and materials available for checkout

    • Encourage opportunities to assist in child’s classroom in parents home language

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    TWBI Program Models

    • 90:10

    • 50:50

    • Other program models

      • 70:30

    • Secondary program models

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    TWBI Program Model 90:10

    50%

    50%

    30%

    70%

    Grades 4-6

    Grades 2-3

    Grades K-1

    These three images are pie charts which represent the amount of time students in various grades are taught in English and the target language. The first one is divided in two and represents K-1 students of which 90% of instruction is taught in in the target language and 10% of instruction is taught in English. The second chart represents grades 2-3. Seventy percent of instruction is done in the target language and 30% is in English. The third chart represents 4-6. Instruction time is split 50/50 for the two languages.

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    TWBI Program Model 50:50

    For All Grades

    This image is a pie chart that is divided into two sections which shows one portion representing 50% of instructional time is spent in the Target Language and the second portion representing 50% of instructional time is spent in English for all grades.

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    TWBI Secondary Program Model

    • Generally a continuation of elementary TWBI program

    • Minimum of 2-3 classes in target language per semester

    • Increased focus on formal language structures

    • Teacher and material resources used to determine target language courses

    • Adequate selection of materials in target language (instructional and library)

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Research ResultsLindholm-Leary (2000)

    • Bilingualism

      • Both models, 90:10 and 50:50, promoted bilingual proficiency (oral)

      • 90:10 models developed higher levels of bilingual proficiency

        English Language Proficiency- both English and Spanish speakers benefited equally from 90:10 and 50:50 models

        Spanish Language Proficiency- More likely to occur in 90:10 models

        All students, regardless of student characteristics were proficient in English and Spanish

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education NCBE


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    Research ResultsLindholm-Leary (2000)

    • Biliteracy

      • Both groups of students were successful in tests of reading and writing in both languages

      • By the time English speakers began English reading in third grade, they performed at grade level and at least as high as English speakers instructed only in English

      • Higher levels of bilingual proficiency associated with higher levels of reading achievement

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education NCBE


    Research results lindholm leary 200034 l.jpg

    Research ResultsLindholm-Leary (2000)

    • Academic Content

      • Both groups of students scored on par with their peers in mathematics achievement

      • Math achievement was highly related across two languages

      • Social studies and science achievement were average to high for English and Spanish speakers

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education NCBE


    Research results lindholm leary 200035 l.jpg

    Research ResultsLindholm-Leary (2000)

    • Multicultural Competencies and Self Esteem

      • High levels of self-esteem

      • High academic competence and motivation

      • Positive multicultural competencies

      • Enjoyment in studying through two languages

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education NCBE


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    National Study of Programs for English LearnersCollier and Thomas

    • In a national study

      • conducted in five school districts throughout the United States

      • including over 210,000 student records

      • reviewing different program types for language minority students

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’

    Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE


    Program types reviewed l.jpg

    TWBI programs

    90:10

    50:50

    Late-Exit bilingual programs

    90:10 and 50:50 one-way developmental programs

    Early-Exit / TBE + content ESL

    Early-Exit / TBE + traditional ESL

    ESL taught through content

    ESL pullout

    Program Types Reviewed

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’

    Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE


    Research results collier and thomas l.jpg

    Research ResultsCollier and Thomas

    • Programs must be

      • effective,

      • well implemented,

      • not segregated

      • and sustained long enough (5-6 years)

        in order for the achievement gap between ELs and native English speakers to be closed

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’

    Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE


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    Research ResultsCollier and Thomas

    • Program effectiveness findings show

      • Enrichment one-way (bilingual maintenance program) and two-way bilingual immersion programs are the only programs that assist students to fully reach the 50th percentile in both L1 and L2 in all subjects and to maintain that high level of achievement

      • Two-way programs have the fewest high school dropouts

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’

    Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE


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    English Learners Long Term K-12 Achievement on Standardized Tests in English Reading Compared Across Seven Program Models

    This chart represents a study conducted by Thomas and Collier comparing the effectiveness of programs for English learners. It shows that two way bilingual immersion programs and late exit bilingual programs with content ESL were the only programs where ELs reached the 50% in English reading and maintained it through 12th grade.

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office

    Thomas & Collier, 2000


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    Benefits of Bilingualism

    • Enhanced academic and linguistic competence in two languages:

    • Development of skills in collaboration & cooperation

    • Appreciation of other cultures and languages

    • Cognitive advantages

    • Increased job opportunities

    • Expanded travel experiences

    • Lower high school drop out rates (EL)

    • Higher interest in attending colleges and universities (EL)

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Selected Resources

    • Christian, D. (1994). Two-way bilingual education: Students learning through two languages. (Educational Practice Rep. No. 12). Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.

    • Christian, D., Montone, C., Lindholm, K., & Carranza, I. (1997). Profiles in two-way immersion education. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems Co., Inc.

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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    Selected Resources

    • California Department of Education. (2002). California two-way bilingual immersion programs directory. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education

    • Thomas, W. & Collier, V. (1998). School effectiveness for language minority students. Alexandria, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education

    • Thomas, W. & Collier, V A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’ Long-Term Academic Achievement. Center for Research on Education , Diversity & Excellence, Santa Cruz, CA

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


    Selected resources44 l.jpg

    Selected Resources

    • Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

    • Lindholm-Leary, K. (2000). Biliteracy for a global society: An idea book on dual language education. Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

    • Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Dual language education. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

    California Department of Education

    Language Policy and Leadership Office


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