The congress of vienna
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The Congress of Vienna. After Napoleon. Need for new order in Europe, based on general consensus Great Powers: France + Great Alliance (Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria) Problem: new order or restoration of old order? Reversement of European order by Napoleon as a given fact

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The Congress of Vienna

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The congress of vienna

The Congress of Vienna


After napoleon

After Napoleon

  • Need for new order in Europe, based on general consensus

  • Great Powers: France + Great Alliance (Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria)

  • Problem: new order or restoration of old order?

  • Reversement of European order by Napoleon as a given fact

  • Principles of „new“ order:

  • Restoration, legitimacy, solidarity


Settlements

Settlements

  • First Peace of Paris: end of French hegemony, Bourbon dynasty restored, French territory like in 1792, no financial compensations

  • Second Peace of Paris (after Napoleon‘s 100 days rule): France occupied for 3 years, financial compensations

  • Congress of Vienna


The congress of vienna1

The Congress of Vienna

  • Most important settlement since Peace of Westphalia 1648

  • Stable new order, lasts until 1866

  • Series of meetings (no central conference)

  • Characterized by outstanding politicians: Metternich (Austria), Hardenberg (Prussia), Nesselrode (Russia), Castlereagh (Britain), Talleyrand (France)


Territorial changes

Territorial Changes

  • France: reduced to status of 1792

  • Britain: gains mainly in Mediterranian Sea, S-Africa, Ceylon

  • Austria: annexations in N-Italy (Lombardy, Venetia)

  • Russia: Finland (1812), Bessarabia, „Congress-Poland“

  • Prussia: annexations in W-Germany

  • Restoration of Pentarchy


Europe 1815

Europe 1815


Alliances

Alliances

  • The Holy Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, based on principles of Christianity, Restoration, Legitimacy, Solidarity (right to intervene in case of revolutionaty activities)

  • Quadruple Alliance: against possible French ambitions


Germany after 1815

Germany after 1815

  • 1806: End of HRE, Franz II. becomes „Emperor of Austria“

  • 1815: „German Union“ established, historical successor of HRE, alliance of German monarchs

  • Policy: anti-revolutionary („System Metternich“)

  • New kingdoms (designed by Napoleon): Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony


The upcoming age of revolution

The Upcoming Age of Revolution

  • 1817: Students‘ protests in Germany (Wartburg festival), reaction by governments: Karlsbad Decisions (1819)

  • Revolts in Ottoman Empire (1804 Serbia, 1820 Greece)

  • 1830: Revolutions in France, Poland

  • 1848: Revolutions in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy


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