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The Congress of Vienna. After Napoleon. Need for new order in Europe, based on general consensus Great Powers: France + Great Alliance (Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria) Problem: new order or restoration of old order? Reversement of European order by Napoleon as a given fact

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after napoleon
After Napoleon
  • Need for new order in Europe, based on general consensus
  • Great Powers: France + Great Alliance (Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria)
  • Problem: new order or restoration of old order?
  • Reversement of European order by Napoleon as a given fact
  • Principles of „new“ order:
  • Restoration, legitimacy, solidarity
settlements
Settlements
  • First Peace of Paris: end of French hegemony, Bourbon dynasty restored, French territory like in 1792, no financial compensations
  • Second Peace of Paris (after Napoleon‘s 100 days rule): France occupied for 3 years, financial compensations
  • Congress of Vienna
the congress of vienna1
The Congress of Vienna
  • Most important settlement since Peace of Westphalia 1648
  • Stable new order, lasts until 1866
  • Series of meetings (no central conference)
  • Characterized by outstanding politicians: Metternich (Austria), Hardenberg (Prussia), Nesselrode (Russia), Castlereagh (Britain), Talleyrand (France)
territorial changes
Territorial Changes
  • France: reduced to status of 1792
  • Britain: gains mainly in Mediterranian Sea, S-Africa, Ceylon
  • Austria: annexations in N-Italy (Lombardy, Venetia)
  • Russia: Finland (1812), Bessarabia, „Congress-Poland“
  • Prussia: annexations in W-Germany
  • Restoration of Pentarchy
alliances
Alliances
  • The Holy Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, based on principles of Christianity, Restoration, Legitimacy, Solidarity (right to intervene in case of revolutionaty activities)
  • Quadruple Alliance: against possible French ambitions
germany after 1815
Germany after 1815
  • 1806: End of HRE, Franz II. becomes „Emperor of Austria“
  • 1815: „German Union“ established, historical successor of HRE, alliance of German monarchs
  • Policy: anti-revolutionary („System Metternich“)
  • New kingdoms (designed by Napoleon): Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony
the upcoming age of revolution
The Upcoming Age of Revolution
  • 1817: Students‘ protests in Germany (Wartburg festival), reaction by governments: Karlsbad Decisions (1819)
  • Revolts in Ottoman Empire (1804 Serbia, 1820 Greece)
  • 1830: Revolutions in France, Poland
  • 1848: Revolutions in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy
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