Savings the seas the economic justification for marine reserves
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Savings the Seas? The Economic Justification for Marine Reserves. by R. Quentin Grafton (CRES, ANU) Pham Van Ha (ANU) Tom Kompas (ABARE & ANU) ABARE Fisheries Resources Research Fund Project Contact E-mail: [email protected] at Bureau of Rural Sciences March 12, 20004.

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Savings the Seas? The Economic Justification for Marine Reserves

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Savings the seas the economic justification for marine reserves

Savings the Seas? The Economic Justification for Marine Reserves

by

R. Quentin Grafton (CRES, ANU)

Pham Van Ha (ANU)

Tom Kompas (ABARE & ANU)

ABARE Fisheries Resources Research Fund Project

Contact E-mail: [email protected]

at Bureau of Rural Sciences

March 12, 20004


Motivation

Motivation

  • Currently, Australia has several hundred marine reserves and two of the world’s largest reserves (GBRMP, Heard & McDonald Islands).

  • Reserves (especially marine reserves) as a management tool are receiving increasing attention (e.g. WSSD 2002) in response to growth, recruitment and economic overharvesting and mismanagement of marine resources.


Potential benefits of reserves

Potential Benefits of Reserves

  • If population exhibits density dependent growth then at low levels of population (high rates of exploitation) reserve can increase abundance and may even raise harvest.

  • Reduced probability of extinction or extirpation as can have protected population greater than minimum viable.

  • More desirable population structure (older & larger individuals that are more fecund) that increases mean recruitment plus biodiversity & recreational values.


Optimal reserve size

Optimal Reserve Size?

  • Despite proposed widespread use of reserves, there remains a key unanswered question---what should be their optimal size taking into account both sustainability and net returns from harvesting?

  • The answer will vary across populations and requires a bioeconomic model of reserves that explicitly accounts for uncertainty to assess impact on resilience and variability of population, harvest and rents.


Bioeconomic model

Bioeconomic Model

  • In absence of harvesting population growth is governed by logistic growth

  • Maximize inter-temporal rents defined by


Model of reserve

Model of Reserve

  • In case of permanent reserve that protects of

    population, the corresponding growth functions are


Optimisation problem

Optimisation Problem

Subject to


Parameter values for simulations

Parameter Values for Simulations

  • a= 0.35 b= 0.2,  = 0.05, transfer rate = 0.3125 and estimates from Canada’s northern cod fishery (1962-1991) used to obtain r=0.30355, K=3.2 million and  =0.35865.

  • Diffusion: g(xR) = 0.01 xRand g(xNR) = 0.01 xNR

  • probability of natural catastrophe of 0.1 and magnitudes


Figures

Figures

  • Value function with identical negative shocks

  • Value function with different shocks

  • Harvest rate with different reserve sizes

  • Resilience and reserve size

  • Discount rate and reserve size


Resilience effect

Resilience Effect

  • Key and general result of paper is that resilience (speed to return to former state) of exploited population increases monotonically in reserve size. Effect is different to population persistence or ensuring a minimum viable population.

  • Reserves are valuable because they act as buffers following a negative shock that allows additional harvesting because of transfers from reserve.


Rules of thumb

‘Rules of Thumb’

Optimal reserve size is increasing the:

  • Larger magnitude or likelihood of negative shocks in the fishery

  • Smaller are shocks on reserve

  • More actual harvest exceeds optimal harvest

  • Lower intrinsic growth rate

  • Lower the discount rate

  • Larger the transfer rate


Concluding remarks

Concluding Remarks

  • Model allows us to determine optimal reserve for any fishery subject to stochastic shocks.

  • Results indicate value of ‘small’ or ‘adaptive’ reserves that generate a ‘win-win’ and provide‘rules of thumb’ about reserve size.

  • To optimally set reserve size, initially establishing small reserves then collect data & experiment to then determine optimal size is consistent with active adaptive management.


Savings the seas the economic justification for marine reserves

BRS Seminar Next Week – Friday 27 February

OECD Work on Agri-environmental Policies and Indicators:

What have we achieved and where to next?

Kevin Paris

Agriculture Directorate, OEDC, Paris

11:00am - 12:00noon, Friday 19 March 2004

EBB Conference Centre (in the courtyard)Edmund Barton BuildingKings Avenue, Canberra


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