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Formative Assessment: Why Feed-Forward is Important Douglas Fisher www.fisherandfrey.com. I’ll go back to school and learn more about the brain!. 400+ Page text. “Somites are blocks of dorsal mesodermal cells adjacent to the notochord during vertebrate organogensis.”

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Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher www fisherandfrey com

Formative Assessment:Why Feed-Forward is ImportantDouglas Fisherwww.fisherandfrey.com


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

I’ll go back to school

and learn more

about

the brain!


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

400+ Page text

“Somites are blocks of dorsal mesodermal cells adjacent to the notochord during vertebrate organogensis.”

“Improved vascular definition in radiographs of the arterial phase or of the venous phase can be procured by a process of subtraction whereby positive and negative images of the overlying skull are superimposed on one another.”


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

I don’t know how you’re going to learn this, but it’s on the test.


Quick build background

Quick, Build Background!


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

Expand Understanding Through Reading


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

Reading Increasingly Difficult Texts


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

Read “Non-Traditional” Texts

  • To date, over 100 YouTube videos!

  • PBS (The Secret Life of the Brain)

  • Internet quiz sites about neuroanatomy

  • Talking with peers and others interested in the brain


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

But, the midterm comes

17 pages, single spaced


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

Besides Some Neuroanatomy, What Have I Learned?

  • You can’t learn from books you can’t read (but you can learn)

  • Reading widely builds background and vocabulary

  • Interacting with others keeps me motivated and clarifies information and extends understanding

  • I have choices and rely on strategies


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

Guided Instruction

“We do it”

“You do it

together”

Collaborative

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

A Structure for Instruction that Works


Formative assessment

Formative Assessment

  • Feed up - establishing purpose

  • Feed back - providing students with information about their success and needs

  • Feed forward - using student performance for “next steps” instruction and feeding this into an instructional model

    Water, water everywhere …


Establishing purpose

Establishing Purpose

  • Why?

    • Focuses attention

    • Alerts learner to key ideas

    • Prevents side trips and maximizes learning time

    • Can be used in formative assessment

  • Types

    • Content goal (based on the standards)

    • Language goal (vocabulary, language structure, and language function)

    • Social goal (classroom needs or school priorities)


What is a content purpose

What is a content purpose?

  • An analysis of the content standard

  • Focuses on what can be accomplished toward the grade-level standard TODAY (in other words, it’s not the standard)

  • It is a learning goal, not an activity (can be written as a goal or objective)


What is a language purpose

What is a language purpose?

  • An analysis of the language demands of the task

  • An understanding of the way students demonstrate their thinking through spoken or written language


Three types of language purposes

Three Types of Language Purposes

  • Vocabulary: (specialized, technical)

  • Structure: (the way the vocabulary is used in sentences to express ideas)

  • Function: (the intended use of those ideas)

    These language purposes build upon one another over a series of lessons.


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

Samples

  • Language Arts

    • C: Describe how a character changes in a story.

    • L: Use sensory detail to give readers a clear image of the character and the changes.

  • Math

    • C: Determine reasonableness of a solution to a mathematical problem.

    • L: Use mathematical terms to explain why an answer is reasonable.


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

Samples

  • Science

    C: Identify the steps in the life cycle of a frog.

    L: Use signal words to describe the life cycle of a frog.

  • Social Studies

    C: Identify the causes of the Revolutionary War.

    L: Explain the meaning of “taxation without representation” to a peer and summarize the meaning in writing.


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

ELD Lesson: Day 1 Why Do People Celebrate?

C: Become familiar with traditions of a Thanksgiving celebration.

L: Listen to a Thanksgiving story and recall and retell the main points (families come together, prepare food, eat food together, enjoy each other’s company).


Eld lesson day 2

ELD Lesson: Day 2

C: Identify common nouns of people (mom, dad, sister, brother, etc.) and match word cards to picture cards.

L: Use picture cards to support partner conversation naming people in the family who come together for celebrations.


Eld lesson day 3

ELD Lesson: Day 3

C: Name actions that take place during a family celebration (e.g., set the table, cook the food, wash dishes).

L: Assemble word cards (verb/object) to create phrases and read the phrases to one another.


Eld lesson day 4

ELD Lesson: Day 4

C: Identify future tense verbs (will, eat, go) related to family celebrations.

L: Apply a language frame (“What will your ____ do on ____?”) in conversation lines, then write three original sentences using the frame.


Eld lesson day 5

ELD Lesson: Day 5

C: Use past tense verbs (regular and irregular) (e.g., did, ate, went) related to family celebrations.

L: Apply language frame (“What did your ___ do on ____”?) in conversation lines and then write three original sentences in response to the frame.


Partner talk

Partner Talk

How do I check for understanding during a lesson?


How often do you do this

How often do you do this?

  • Everybody got that?

  • Any questions?

  • Does that make sense?

  • OK?

    Too often, we accept the answers of a few to serve as a check for understanding of all students.


Checking for understanding is

Checking for Understanding is…

  • Formative

  • Systematic

  • Planned

    It is not…

  • Left until the end of the unit


Checking for understanding involves

Checking for Understanding involves…

  • Oral language

  • Questioning

  • Written language

  • Projects and performance

  • Tests

  • Common assessments and consensus scoring

    Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007). Checking for understanding: Formative assessment techniques for your classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Checking for understanding through oral language

Checking for Understanding through Oral Language

  • Involves speaking and listening

  • Classrooms are often overwhelmed by teacher talk

  • In high-achieving classrooms, teachers spoke 55% of the time, compared to low-achieving classrooms, where teachers spoke 80% of the time (Flanders, 1970)


Retellings

Retellings

  • Oral to Orallistens to a selection and retells it orally

  • Oral to Writtenlistens to a selection and retells it in writing (summary)

  • Oral to Videolistens to a selection and creates an I-movie

  • Reading to Oralreads a selection and retells it orally

  • Reading to Writtenreads a selection and retells it in writing (summary)

  • Reading to Videoreads a selection and creates an I-movie

  • Viewing to Oralviews a film and retells it orally

  • Viewing to Writtenviews a film and retells it in writing (summary)

  • Viewing to Videoviews a film and creates an I-movie


Promoting oral language

Promoting Oral Language

Accountable talk

  • Press for clarification and explanation: Could you describe what you mean?

  • Require justification of proposals and challenges: Where did you find that information?

  • Recognize and challenge misconception: I don’t agree because ...

  • Demand evidence for claims and arguments: Can you give me an example?

  • Interpret and use each other’s statements: David suggested …

    Institute for Learning, University of Pittsburgh


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

Using Questions to Check for Understanding


Questioning habits of teachers

Questioning Habits of Teachers

  • Dominated by Initiate-Respond-Evaluate cycles (Mehan, 1979; Cazden, 1986)

    T: How do you calculate momentum? (Initiate)

    S: You multiply mass times velocity. (Respond)

    T: Good. (Evaluate). What is the law of conservation of momentum? (Initiate)

    If you doubt the pervasiveness of this pattern, listen to young children “playing school”!


Effective questioning processes

Stage 1: Prepare the Question

Identify instructional purpose

Determine content focus

Select cognitive level

Consider wording and syntax

Stage 2: Present the Question

Indicate response format

Ask the question

Select Respondent

Source: Walsh, J. A., & Sattes, B. D. (2005). Quality questioning: Research-based practice to engage every learner. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Stage 3: Prompt Student Responses

Pause after asking question

Assist non-respondent

Pause following student response

Stage 4: Process Student Responses

Provide appropriate feedback

Expand and use correct responses

Elicit student reactions and questions

Stage 5: Reflect on Questioning Practice

Analyze questions

Map respondent selection

Evaluate student response patterns

Examine teacher and student reactions

Effective Questioning Processes


Checking for understanding through writing

Checking for Understanding Through Writing

  • A tool for thinking

  • An opportunity to get a glimpse of student understanding

  • Provides a different dimension than multiple-choice items


Checking for understanding through writing1

Checking for Understanding through Writing

  • Interactive writing

  • Read, Write, Pair, Share

  • Summary writing

  • RAFT


Raft in history

RAFT in History

Role: Marco Polo

Audience: Potential recruits

Format: Recruiting poster

Topic: Come see the Silk Road!


Raft in geometry

RAFT in Geometry

  • Role:A scalene triangle

  • Audience:Your three angles

  • Format:A telephone call

  • Topic: Our unequal relationship


Checking for understanding through projects and performances

Checking for Understanding through Projects and Performances

Science Fairs

Readers Theater

http://webquests.org

Myspace.com project


Checking for understanding through projects and performances1

Checking for Understanding Through Projects and Performances

Oral

presentations

Collaborative learning

Portfolios

Foldables ™


Partner talk1

Partner Talk

  • What projects or performances have you been involved with that were especially powerful for your learning?


Using tests to check for understanding

Using Tests to Check for Understanding


Considerations for test design

Considerations for Test Design

  • More than “cataloging mistakes”

  • Match items with purpose

    • Multiple choice for item analysis

    • Short answer for recall of information

    • Dichotomous for sampling wide knowledge

    • Essay for organizing info, creative responses

  • Use it to plan future instruction!


Make instructions explicit

Make Instructions Explicit


Checking for understanding through common formative assessments

Checking for Understanding through Common Formative Assessments

  • To align instructional practice

  • To analyze student work

  • To make instructional decisions

  • Teacher-created or commercial?


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

How does a plant grow? Where does its masscome from?


Item analysis in science

Item Analysis in Science


Our goal is not to determine how smart children are but how children are smart

Our goal is not to determine how smart children are, but how children are smart.


Formative assessment1

Formative Assessment

  • Feed up - establishing purpose

  • Feed back - providing students with information about their success and needs

  • Feed forward - using student performance for “next steps” instruction and feeding this into an instructional model

    Water, water everywhere …


Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher fisherandfrey

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

Guided Instruction

“We do it”

“You do it

together”

Collaborative

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

A Structure for Instruction that Works


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