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Formative Assessment: Why Feed-Forward is Important Douglas Fisher www.fisherandfrey.com. I’ll go back to school and learn more about the brain!. 400+ Page text. “Somites are blocks of dorsal mesodermal cells adjacent to the notochord during vertebrate organogensis.”

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Formative assessment why feed forward is important douglas fisher www fisherandfrey com

Formative Assessment:Why Feed-Forward is ImportantDouglas Fisherwww.fisherandfrey.com


I’ll go back to school

and learn more

about

the brain!


400+ Page text

“Somites are blocks of dorsal mesodermal cells adjacent to the notochord during vertebrate organogensis.”

“Improved vascular definition in radiographs of the arterial phase or of the venous phase can be procured by a process of subtraction whereby positive and negative images of the overlying skull are superimposed on one another.”






Read “Non-Traditional” Texts on the test.

  • To date, over 100 YouTube videos!

  • PBS (The Secret Life of the Brain)

  • Internet quiz sites about neuroanatomy

  • Talking with peers and others interested in the brain


But, the midterm comes on the test.

17 pages, single spaced


Besides Some Neuroanatomy, What Have I Learned? on the test.

  • You can’t learn from books you can’t read (but you can learn)

  • Reading widely builds background and vocabulary

  • Interacting with others keeps me motivated and clarifies information and extends understanding

  • I have choices and rely on strategies


TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY on the test.

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

Guided Instruction

“We do it”

“You do it

together”

Collaborative

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

A Structure for Instruction that Works


Formative assessment
Formative Assessment on the test.

  • Feed up - establishing purpose

  • Feed back - providing students with information about their success and needs

  • Feed forward - using student performance for “next steps” instruction and feeding this into an instructional model

    Water, water everywhere …


Establishing purpose
Establishing Purpose on the test.

  • Why?

    • Focuses attention

    • Alerts learner to key ideas

    • Prevents side trips and maximizes learning time

    • Can be used in formative assessment

  • Types

    • Content goal (based on the standards)

    • Language goal (vocabulary, language structure, and language function)

    • Social goal (classroom needs or school priorities)


What is a content purpose
What is a content purpose? on the test.

  • An analysis of the content standard

  • Focuses on what can be accomplished toward the grade-level standard TODAY (in other words, it’s not the standard)

  • It is a learning goal, not an activity (can be written as a goal or objective)


What is a language purpose
What is a language purpose? on the test.

  • An analysis of the language demands of the task

  • An understanding of the way students demonstrate their thinking through spoken or written language


Three types of language purposes
Three Types of on the test.Language Purposes

  • Vocabulary: (specialized, technical)

  • Structure: (the way the vocabulary is used in sentences to express ideas)

  • Function: (the intended use of those ideas)

    These language purposes build upon one another over a series of lessons.


Samples on the test.

  • Language Arts

    • C: Describe how a character changes in a story.

    • L: Use sensory detail to give readers a clear image of the character and the changes.

  • Math

    • C: Determine reasonableness of a solution to a mathematical problem.

    • L: Use mathematical terms to explain why an answer is reasonable.


Samples on the test.

  • Science

    C: Identify the steps in the life cycle of a frog.

    L: Use signal words to describe the life cycle of a frog.

  • Social Studies

    C: Identify the causes of the Revolutionary War.

    L: Explain the meaning of “taxation without representation” to a peer and summarize the meaning in writing.


ELD Lesson: Day 1 on the test.Why Do People Celebrate?

C: Become familiar with traditions of a Thanksgiving celebration.

L: Listen to a Thanksgiving story and recall and retell the main points (families come together, prepare food, eat food together, enjoy each other’s company).


Eld lesson day 2
ELD Lesson: Day 2 on the test.

C: Identify common nouns of people (mom, dad, sister, brother, etc.) and match word cards to picture cards.

L: Use picture cards to support partner conversation naming people in the family who come together for celebrations.


Eld lesson day 3
ELD Lesson: Day 3 on the test.

C: Name actions that take place during a family celebration (e.g., set the table, cook the food, wash dishes).

L: Assemble word cards (verb/object) to create phrases and read the phrases to one another.


Eld lesson day 4
ELD Lesson: Day 4 on the test.

C: Identify future tense verbs (will, eat, go) related to family celebrations.

L: Apply a language frame (“What will your ____ do on ____?”) in conversation lines, then write three original sentences using the frame.


Eld lesson day 5
ELD Lesson: Day 5 on the test.

C: Use past tense verbs (regular and irregular) (e.g., did, ate, went) related to family celebrations.

L: Apply language frame (“What did your ___ do on ____”?) in conversation lines and then write three original sentences in response to the frame.


Partner talk
Partner Talk on the test.

How do I check for understanding during a lesson?


How often do you do this
How often do you do this? on the test.

  • Everybody got that?

  • Any questions?

  • Does that make sense?

  • OK?

    Too often, we accept the answers of a few to serve as a check for understanding of all students.


Checking for understanding is
Checking for Understanding is… on the test.

  • Formative

  • Systematic

  • Planned

    It is not…

  • Left until the end of the unit


Checking for understanding involves
Checking for Understanding involves… on the test.

  • Oral language

  • Questioning

  • Written language

  • Projects and performance

  • Tests

  • Common assessments and consensus scoring

    Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007). Checking for understanding: Formative assessment techniques for your classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Checking for understanding through oral language
Checking for Understanding through Oral Language on the test.

  • Involves speaking and listening

  • Classrooms are often overwhelmed by teacher talk

  • In high-achieving classrooms, teachers spoke 55% of the time, compared to low-achieving classrooms, where teachers spoke 80% of the time (Flanders, 1970)


Retellings
Retellings on the test.

  • Oral to Oral listens to a selection and retells it orally

  • Oral to Written listens to a selection and retells it in writing (summary)

  • Oral to Video listens to a selection and creates an I-movie

  • Reading to Oral reads a selection and retells it orally

  • Reading to Written reads a selection and retells it in writing (summary)

  • Reading to Video reads a selection and creates an I-movie

  • Viewing to Oral views a film and retells it orally

  • Viewing to Written views a film and retells it in writing (summary)

  • Viewing to Video views a film and creates an I-movie


Promoting oral language
Promoting Oral Language on the test.

Accountable talk

  • Press for clarification and explanation: Could you describe what you mean?

  • Require justification of proposals and challenges: Where did you find that information?

  • Recognize and challenge misconception: I don’t agree because ...

  • Demand evidence for claims and arguments: Can you give me an example?

  • Interpret and use each other’s statements: David suggested …

    Institute for Learning, University of Pittsburgh



Questioning habits of teachers
Questioning Habits of Teachers on the test.

  • Dominated by Initiate-Respond-Evaluate cycles (Mehan, 1979; Cazden, 1986)

    T: How do you calculate momentum? (Initiate)

    S: You multiply mass times velocity. (Respond)

    T: Good. (Evaluate). What is the law of conservation of momentum? (Initiate)

    If you doubt the pervasiveness of this pattern, listen to young children “playing school”!


Effective questioning processes

Stage 1: Prepare the Question on the test.

Identify instructional purpose

Determine content focus

Select cognitive level

Consider wording and syntax

Stage 2: Present the Question

Indicate response format

Ask the question

Select Respondent

Source: Walsh, J. A., & Sattes, B. D. (2005). Quality questioning: Research-based practice to engage every learner. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Stage 3: Prompt Student Responses

Pause after asking question

Assist non-respondent

Pause following student response

Stage 4: Process Student Responses

Provide appropriate feedback

Expand and use correct responses

Elicit student reactions and questions

Stage 5: Reflect on Questioning Practice

Analyze questions

Map respondent selection

Evaluate student response patterns

Examine teacher and student reactions

Effective Questioning Processes


Checking for understanding through writing
Checking for Understanding Through Writing on the test.

  • A tool for thinking

  • An opportunity to get a glimpse of student understanding

  • Provides a different dimension than multiple-choice items


Checking for understanding through writing1
Checking for Understanding through Writing on the test.

  • Interactive writing

  • Read, Write, Pair, Share

  • Summary writing

  • RAFT


Raft in history
RAFT in History on the test.

Role: Marco Polo

Audience: Potential recruits

Format: Recruiting poster

Topic: Come see the Silk Road!


Raft in geometry
RAFT in Geometry on the test.

  • Role: A scalene triangle

  • Audience: Your three angles

  • Format: A telephone call

  • Topic: Our unequal relationship


Checking for understanding through projects and performances
Checking for Understanding through Projects and Performances on the test.

Science Fairs

Readers Theater

http://webquests.org

Myspace.com project


Checking for understanding through projects and performances1
Checking for Understanding Through Projects and Performances on the test.

Oral

presentations

Collaborative learning

Portfolios

Foldables ™


Partner talk1
Partner Talk on the test.

  • What projects or performances have you been involved with that were especially powerful for your learning?



Considerations for test design
Considerations for Test Design on the test.

  • More than “cataloging mistakes”

  • Match items with purpose

    • Multiple choice for item analysis

    • Short answer for recall of information

    • Dichotomous for sampling wide knowledge

    • Essay for organizing info, creative responses

  • Use it to plan future instruction!



Checking for understanding through common formative assessments
Checking for Understanding through Common Formative Assessments

  • To align instructional practice

  • To analyze student work

  • To make instructional decisions

  • Teacher-created or commercial?




Our goal is not to determine how smart children are but how children are smart
Our goal is not to determine Assessmentshow smart children are, but how children are smart.


Formative assessment1
Formative Assessment Assessments

  • Feed up - establishing purpose

  • Feed back - providing students with information about their success and needs

  • Feed forward - using student performance for “next steps” instruction and feeding this into an instructional model

    Water, water everywhere …


TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Assessments

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

Guided Instruction

“We do it”

“You do it

together”

Collaborative

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

A Structure for Instruction that Works


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