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Ciclo di progetto Prof. Luca Brusati. Grassroots Peace Building in practice. Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello. Anno accademico 2007-2008. Mario Ianniello ([email protected]) PhD in Public Management (ongoing)

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Ciclo di progettoProf. Luca Brusati

Grassroots Peace Building

in practice

Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello

Anno accademico 2007-2008




  • A complex scenario of intervention

    • Historical-political and social-economic framework

    • The violent conflict and its multilevel consequences

  • The international intervention

    • Why?

    • Which objectives?


  • Intervention rationale

    • Links between political dynamics at international (USA, Russia, EU, Serbia, Croazia, change of strategic scenario), national and local level

    • Sustainability of interventions

    • Financing vs implementation (time span)

    • Conditions of effectiveness and networking of local resorces

  • Results

    • Who makes a project successful? (donors, beneficiaries, politics, ONG, institutions, etc.)

    • The stone guest: impact evaluation



  • After Tito’s decease, the republic survived mostly thanks to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia

  • In 1989, non-serb areas autonomy was cancelled (specifically Kosovo and Vojvodina)

  • After 1990 elections, the imminent separation of the republics became apparent, but there was aproblem unsolved: state borders didn’t match the ethnic distribution


  • 1991: Hostilities start in Croatia to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia

  • 1992: EU recognizes Slovenia (declaration of independence)In Croatia, a referendum is followed by the declaration of independence (recognition by Ue and USA).

  • The BiH conflict starts


  • Article VI: Entry into Force to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia

  • This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature:

  • For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • For the Republic of Croatia

  • For the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

  • For the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • For the Republika Srpska


  • NATO to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia (Annex 1A)

    • IFOR (Implementation Force, Operation Joint Endeavour, dicembre 1995 - dicembre 1996)

    • SFOR (Stabilization Force, Operation Joint Guard / Operation Joint Forge 1996-2005)


  • OHR to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia(Office of the High Representative, Annex 10, a limited-sovereignity democracy model - concurrent role of EUSR - European Union Special Representative) international institution ad hoc (supervision of implementation of civil aspects of Dayton)

  • IPTF (International Police Task Force, Annex 11)

  • Agencies

    • UNHCR (UN High Commissioner for Refugee)

    • UNDP (UN Development Programme)

    • ICTY (Intl. Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia)



  • OSCE to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia(Annex 3, free elections and democratisation)

  • ONG…

    • Emergency relief

    • Social reconstruction


  • OSCE to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia(Annex 3, free elections and democratisation)

  • ONG…

    • Emergency relief

    • Social reconstruction


B to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia

C

A

WHAT ARE THE

CONSEQUENCES

OF A VIOLENT CONFLICT?


  • Politics to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia

  • Economy

  • Society

  • Technology

  • Legal frame

  • Environment


  • (Peace making) to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia

  • “Traditional” UN approaches

    • Peace keeping

    • Peace enforcing

  • Peace building (now integrated in the UN system)


  • Key element of sustainability to the peace process in a post-conflict scenario (UN AGENDA FOR PEACE 1992, BRAHIMI REPORT 2000)

  • Intervention typology integrated with peacemaking, essential contribution to preventive diplomacy

  • Reconciliation based on relationships reconstruction to allow the healing of social and psychological traumas through dialogue (LEDERACH 1997)


  • Filling a post-conflict scenario (UN AGENDA FOR PEACE 1992, BRAHIMI REPORT 2000)vacuum:

    • First emergency relief

    • Physical reconstruction

    • Social reconstruction

  • Adopting a participatory model

    • Contextually relevant

    • Culturally sensitive

    • Real needs responsive

    • Decentralization driven


  • Frozen political/social context post-conflict scenario (UN AGENDA FOR PEACE 1992, BRAHIMI REPORT 2000)

  • Economic situation

  • Infrastructures

  • Freedom of movement

  • Black economy

  • Poor government control

  • Dated legislation

  • Social situation

  • Destroyed social fabric and relationships

  • Ethnic violence and discrimination

  • “Anti-internationals” feelings


  • Type of programme to develop and implement (in given context, NGOs often take the role of social reconstruction and democratisation )

  • Target group (they target the epicentre of new power and influence; usually grassroots based power of youth, community leaders, students)

  • Duration (usually 3-5 years)

  • Methodology (highly participatory and focussed on capacity building)




  • Financial sustainability organisational challenges

  • Coordination

  • Legitimacy, transparency and accountability

  • Impact evaluation of NGOs development projects and programmes

  • Managerialization of NGOs and coherence with the vision

  • Cultural sensitivity in approaches and tools



  • Accurate and Effective Project Management organisational challenges

  • Project Planning Accommodating Recipients’ Needs

  • Project Planning fit with Local Context

  • Assured Transparency of Assistance

  • More Effective Communication


  • Modification of LFA organisational challenges

  • Importance of Workshop Participants

  • Application of Supplementary Methods

  • Problem-Solving



Project selection organisational challenges

Problems

Analysis

Objectives

Analysis

Stakeholders

Analysis

Plan of operation

LFA matrix

Analysis

Planning

Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007


Resources organisational challenges

(data, skills, practice)

Team building

(brain storming)

process

facilitator

Visualization

(Cards)

Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007


  • Sharing information and recognition organisational challenges

  • Consensus-making based on mutual

  • understanding

  • Project planning in accordance with the host

  • country’s and beneficiary’s needs

  • Project planning in accordance with the local

  • context




  • 3-4 people groups implementation not included in the planning

  • 10 min. introduction/explanation

  • 30 min. exercise

  • 5 min. per group feedback


  • Il governo italiano ha verificato un aumento dei flussi d’immigrati clandestini attraverso i confini del nord-est, in seguito alle condizioni createsi dopo il conflitto nei Balcani

  • Oltre agli altri strumenti posti in essere nel territorio nazionale (aumento dei controlli, legislazione ad hoc, accoglienza, etc.) il governo ha deciso di finanziare delle iniziative in Bosnia per diversificare l’intervento ed aumentarne l’efficacia


  • La vostra ong ha ricevuto una donazione di 1,3 ml di euro per un intervento di ricostruzione sociale nel Distretto di Brcko della durata di cinque anni (200.000 il primo e l’ultimo anno, 300.00 euro gli altri anni). Il finanziamento ha lo scopo di stabilizzare la situazione della popolazione e ridurre il numero delle persone che abbandonano il paese.


  • Rispondete alle seguenti domande: per un intervento di ricostruzione sociale nel Distretto di Brcko della durata di cinque anni (200.000 il primo e l’ultimo anno, 300.00 euro gli altri anni).

    • Quali sono le considerazioni principali nella pianificazione del vostro intervento

    • Chi saranno i vostri beneficiari (e perché)

    • Come intendete intervenire (per linee generali)

    • Con chi avreste intenzione di cooperare (se intendete farlo)

    • Quali risultati pensate di garantire al donor alla fine dei 5 anni


“The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work.”


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