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Ciclo di progetto Prof. Luca Brusati. Grassroots Peace Building in practice. Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello. Anno accademico 2007-2008. Mario Ianniello ( PhD in Public Management (ongoing)

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Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello

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Ciclo di progettoProf. Luca Brusati

Grassroots Peace Building

in practice

Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello

Anno accademico 2007-2008

  • Mario Ianniello (

    • PhD in Public Management (ongoing)

    • Degree in European Public Relations and Master in Public Relations of Institutions

    • Associate Tutor at Jönköpping University – Montenegro Level B Course

    • Independent mentor and consultant for Advera Consulting NI, PRONI Institute of Social Education, Forum Syd Balkans,etc.

    • Different appointments with UN, NATO, OSCE, TIPH

  • Peacebuilding and international politics

  • What is peacebuilding in practice

  • Peacebuilding and PCM

  • Group exercises

  • A complex scenario of intervention

    • Historical-political and social-economic framework

    • The violent conflict and its multilevel consequences

  • The international intervention

    • Why?

    • Which objectives?

  • Intervention rationale

    • Links between political dynamics at international (USA, Russia, EU, Serbia, Croazia, change of strategic scenario), national and local level

    • Sustainability of interventions

    • Financing vs implementation (time span)

    • Conditions of effectiveness and networking of local resorces

  • Results

    • Who makes a project successful? (donors, beneficiaries, politics, ONG, institutions, etc.)

    • The stone guest: impact evaluation

Complexity as a constant feature

Israel - Palestine

  • After Tito’s decease, the republic survived mostly thanks to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia

  • In 1989, non-serb areas autonomy was cancelled (specifically Kosovo and Vojvodina)

  • After 1990 elections, the imminent separation of the republics became apparent, but there was aproblem unsolved: state borders didn’t match the ethnic distribution

  • 1991: Hostilities start in Croatia

  • 1992: EU recognizes Slovenia (declaration of independence)In Croatia, a referendum is followed by the declaration of independence (recognition by Ue and USA).

  • The BiH conflict starts

  • Article VI: Entry into Force

  • This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature:

  • For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • For the Republic of Croatia

  • For the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

  • For the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • For the Republika Srpska

  • NATO (Annex 1A)

    • IFOR (Implementation Force, Operation Joint Endeavour, dicembre 1995 - dicembre 1996)

    • SFOR (Stabilization Force, Operation Joint Guard / Operation Joint Forge 1996-2005)

  • OHR(Office of the High Representative, Annex 10, a limited-sovereignity democracy model - concurrent role of EUSR - European Union Special Representative) international institution ad hoc (supervision of implementation of civil aspects of Dayton)

  • IPTF (International Police Task Force, Annex 11)

  • Agencies

    • UNHCR (UN High Commissioner for Refugee)

    • UNDP (UN Development Programme)

    • ICTY (Intl. Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia)

  • EUPM (Joint Action EUPM 002/210/CFSP of UE Council)from January 2003

  • EUFOR (Joint Action 2004/570/CFSPD)

  • OSCE (Annex 3, free elections and democratisation)

  • ONG…

    • Emergency relief

    • Social reconstruction

  • OSCE (Annex 3, free elections and democratisation)

  • ONG…

    • Emergency relief

    • Social reconstruction







  • Politics

  • Economy

  • Society

  • Technology

  • Legal frame

  • Environment

  • (Peace making)

  • “Traditional” UN approaches

    • Peace keeping

    • Peace enforcing

  • Peace building (now integrated in the UN system)

  • Key element of sustainability to the peace process in a post-conflict scenario (UN AGENDA FOR PEACE 1992, BRAHIMI REPORT 2000)

  • Intervention typology integrated with peacemaking, essential contribution to preventive diplomacy

  • Reconciliation based on relationships reconstruction to allow the healing of social and psychological traumas through dialogue (LEDERACH 1997)

  • Filling a vacuum:

    • First emergency relief

    • Physical reconstruction

    • Social reconstruction

  • Adopting a participatory model

    • Contextually relevant

    • Culturally sensitive

    • Real needs responsive

    • Decentralization driven

  • Frozen political/social context

  • Economic situation

  • Infrastructures

  • Freedom of movement

  • Black economy

  • Poor government control

  • Dated legislation

  • Social situation

  • Destroyed social fabric and relationships

  • Ethnic violence and discrimination

  • “Anti-internationals” feelings

  • Type of programme to develop and implement (in given context, NGOs often take the role of social reconstruction and democratisation )

  • Target group (they target the epicentre of new power and influence; usually grassroots based power of youth, community leaders, students)

  • Duration (usually 3-5 years)

  • Methodology (highly participatory and focussed on capacity building)

  • Strategic choice based on where and how to be most effective

  • Targets response to need (feedback loop)

  • Builds on relationship between community and NGO - accountable, trusted and based on mutual control.

  • Responding to the contextual challenges creates many organisational challenges

  • Managerial challenges

  • Ethical funding

  • Ethical partnerships

  • Need centred development

  • Having staff and volunteers as beneficiaries as well as implementers

  • Sustainability

  • Financial sustainability

  • Coordination

  • Legitimacy, transparency and accountability

  • Impact evaluation of NGOs development projects and programmes

  • Managerialization of NGOs and coherence with the vision

  • Cultural sensitivity in approaches and tools

  • Participatory Approach

  • Logicality

  • Consistency

  • Accurate and Effective Project Management

  • Project Planning Accommodating Recipients’ Needs

  • Project Planning fit with Local Context

  • Assured Transparency of Assistance

  • More Effective Communication

  • Modification of LFA

  • Importance of Workshop Participants

  • Application of Supplementary Methods

  • Problem-Solving

  • Participatory Planning

  • Monitoring and Evaluation

Project selection







Plan of operation

LFA matrix



Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007


(data, skills, practice)

Team building

(brain storming)





Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007

  • Sharing information and recognition

  • Consensus-making based on mutual

  • understanding

  • Project planning in accordance with the host

  • country’s and beneficiary’s needs

  • Project planning in accordance with the local

  • context

  • Capacity of becoming independent from the international aid and of using local resources

  • Sustainability indicators

    • Policies

    • Society & Culture

    • Organizations & Institutions

    • Economy & Finance

    • Technologies

    • Environment

  • Effects (direct and indirect, positive and negative) of the implementation not included in the planning

  • Impact evaluation happens after the intervention is over (3-5 years)

  • Requires dedicated budget lines

  • The overall goal is included as expected positive effects

  • 3-4 people groups

  • 10 min. introduction/explanation

  • 30 min. exercise

  • 5 min. per group feedback

  • Il governo italiano ha verificato un aumento dei flussi d’immigrati clandestini attraverso i confini del nord-est, in seguito alle condizioni createsi dopo il conflitto nei Balcani

  • Oltre agli altri strumenti posti in essere nel territorio nazionale (aumento dei controlli, legislazione ad hoc, accoglienza, etc.) il governo ha deciso di finanziare delle iniziative in Bosnia per diversificare l’intervento ed aumentarne l’efficacia

  • La vostra ong ha ricevuto una donazione di 1,3 ml di euro per un intervento di ricostruzione sociale nel Distretto di Brcko della durata di cinque anni (200.000 il primo e l’ultimo anno, 300.00 euro gli altri anni). Il finanziamento ha lo scopo di stabilizzare la situazione della popolazione e ridurre il numero delle persone che abbandonano il paese.

  • Rispondete alle seguenti domande:

    • Quali sono le considerazioni principali nella pianificazione del vostro intervento

    • Chi saranno i vostri beneficiari (e perché)

    • Come intendete intervenire (per linee generali)

    • Con chi avreste intenzione di cooperare (se intendete farlo)

    • Quali risultati pensate di garantire al donor alla fine dei 5 anni

“The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work.”

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