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Wordsalive A Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools “A word is the skin of a living thing.” Oliver Wendell Holmes LET’S BRAINSTORM What are the problems your students have when you introduce new material?

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WordsaliveA Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools

“A word is the skin of a living thing.”

Oliver Wendell Holmes


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LET’S BRAINSTORM

  • What are the problems your students have when you introduce new material?

  • What are the ways in which you introduce new words to your students?

  • How was vocabulary taught to you when you were a student?


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SIMULATION # 1

  • Find a partner who teaches a different subject from the one you teach.

  • Using the methods you usually use with students, teach one word from your subject area to your partner.

  • Trade roles so that your partner teaches you one word from his or her discipline.


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How do we really learn new words and make them our own?

Martha Rapp Haggard tells us that adults have a three step process.

1. Search for the word’s meaning and pronunciation.

2. Practice the word in a low risk situation.

3. Use the word properly without effort.

“Vocabulary self-collection strategy: an active approach to word learning.” (1982). Journal of Reading, 26.3, 203-207.


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What are the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction? own?

Eileen Carr and Karen Wixson provide four guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction.

Students should:

  • relate new vocabulary to background knowledge;

  • develop elaborated word knowledge;

  • be actively involved in learning; and

  • develop strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently.

    “Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction.” (1986). Journal of Reading, 29.7, 558-595.


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The purpose of the workshop is to provide the tools for all teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

  • Is there a word in the purpose statement which needs more instruction? Which one?


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…to provide the tools… teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

to teach vocabulary…in a way that extrapolates student learning

Wordsalive Map

extrapolates

extend a curve or function beyond the range of known values using the values that have already been determined

enhance, enrich or go beyond what’s there

improves

extra-beyond pol-polish ate- to make verb/Latin

extends

confines

polish extra- curricular

Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization

Escher’s designs extrapolate a variety of shapes.


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Day and Night teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning. by M. C. Escher


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Parts of sentence(s) from the book which reveal the context teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Wordsalive Map

WORD

Dictionary Definition

Paraphrased definition

Guessed definition

Antonym or non-example

Etymology and P.O.S.

Synonym

Related Words

Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization

Caption using the new word


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Wordsalive Map teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.


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SIMULATION # 2 teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

  • Find a partner who teaches the same subject as you do.

  • Using the wordsalive map transparency, choose a familiar word from your subject area to map with your partner.

  • Take a short break.

  • Share and discuss.


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Why do we need to do all the parts of the Wordsalive Map? teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Baumann and Kameenui discuss three levels of word knowledge that can be used to consider depth of understanding and related instructional procedures.

1. Association: with a single definition or context

2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite

3. Generation: ability to produce a novel response

“Research on vocabulary instruction: Ode to Voltaire.” (1991). Handbook on Teaching the English Language Arts, 602-632.


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Baumann and Kameenui’s teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.three levels of word knowledge: an analogy

Association: shaking hands

Comprehension: becoming friends

Generation: calling on a friend when in need


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Association teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Copy the sentence

Why?

  • Facilitates decoding and provides direct interaction with the word.

  • Focuses attention on the context clues and the content.

    How?

  • Copy only as much of the context that supplies the essence of the meaning for the new word.

  • Use selection and deselection of information.

  • Include the sentence before or after the new word, if necessary.

wordsalive


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Association teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Copy the sentence

Copy only the essential context from the following sentences:

“If Immanuel Kant had stumbled across this luncheon after his noon Beverly Hills shrink appointment, he would have quickly discerned that Lisa is all phenomena and no noumena, and that Mirabelle is all noumena and no phenomena.” (p 32)

“Mirabelle is not sparkling tonight, because she works only in gears, and tonight she is in the wrong gear. Third gear is her scholarly, perspicacious, witty self; second gear is her happy, giddy, childish self; and first gear is her complaining, helpless, unmotivated self. Tonight she is somewhere midshift...” (p 63)

“But right now, he is using the hours with her as a portal to his own need for propinquity.” (p 77)

Martin, S. (2000). Shopgirl, Hyperion.

wordsalive


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Association teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Record only the essential context into the speech bubble.

wordsalive


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All contexts are not created equal! teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Copy the sentence

1. Misdirective contexts which mislead the reader.

2. Nondirective contexts which provide no assistance to the reader.

3. General contexts which provide only enough information for the reader to categorize the unknown word.

4. Directive contexts which lead the reader to the specific, correct meaning for a new word.

Beck, McKeown, and McCaslin, “Vocabulary Development: All contexts are not created equal.” (1983). Elementary School Journal 177-181.


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All contexts are not created equal! teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Misdirective Context

“Mr. Barry, ...this is just a courtesy call to do you the courtesy of interrupting your dinner so I can ask you a question. …I hang up. But of course this does not stop them. …they call again. That’s how courteous they are.”

Dave Barry, Richmond Times-Dispatch

November 12, 2000


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All contexts are not created equal! teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Nondirective Context

“ There is a doggedness about [Charles] Wright’s treatment of these things that becomes, as the poems pile up, somehow both humble and heroic.”

Ron Smith, Richmond Times-Dispatch

November 12, 2000


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All contexts are not created equal! teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

General Context

“ ’Meat is contraband,’ the customs agent said as he confiscated the ham.’ ”

Jonathan Yardley, Richmond Times-Dispatch

November 12, 2000

“ In him [Arthur Miller] the American theater found, perhaps for the first time, an eloquence and an amplitude of feeling…”

Jere Real, Richmond Times-Dispatch

November 12, 2000


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All contexts are not created equal! teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Directive Context

“On the other hand, the windblown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt called loess have benefited farmers in China, the American Midwest and other parts of the world.”

World Geography : Prentice Hall, page 51.


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Association teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Guess, copy and paraphrase the definition

Why use the dictionary?

To link the word to the appropriate definition based on the context.

Why paraphrase?

To lead to the comprehen-sion level.

Why guess?

To activate background knowledge.

We learn more when we are self-involved.


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Guess and paraphrase the definition teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

a covering of a plane without overlaps or gaps using combinations of congruent figures

tessellation

preponderant influence or authority especially of one nation over others

hegemony

subduction

the process of the edge of one crustal plate descending below the edge of another

The paraphrase begins the comprehension process.


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Comprehension

Synonym, antonym, etymology, and related words

Related Words

Multiple opportunities for interaction with the new word will allow each student to find understanding in his unique way.


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Find a synonym

Why?

  • Synonyms can provide a new label for a known concept.

    How?

  • Synonyms should be consistent in part of speech; however, teachers should recognize students’ developmental stages as they move toward that consistency.

  • Pull synonyms from the definition, context, prior knowledge, or etymology.

  • Do not just copy one from a thesaurus.

wordsalive


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Find an antonym

The Not Box

Why?

  • “Polarity is located at the deepest and most abstract level of the semantic network.” (Powell, 1986)

  • Definition by contrast

    How?

  • Provide an opportunity to reinforce negative prefixes. (Hennings, 2000)

  • Many words do not have antonyms, but a non-example works well to establish polarity. (Frayer, 1969)

wordsalive


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Finding antonyms teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

The Not Box

Three types of antonyms

  • Mutually exclusive

    • singular/plural

    • husband/wife

  • Graduation

    • icy/scalding

    • emaciated/obese

  • Undo

    • buy/sell

    • wrap/unwrap

wordsalive

Powell, “Teaching vocabulary through opposition.” Journal of Reading 29.7 617-621.


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Create a synonym and antonym

  • cleave

  • benign

  • frolic

  • arrange

  • suitable

  • destination

  • nourishment

  • sufficient

  • often

  • prohibit

wordsalive


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Etymology and Morphology

Related Words


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What is etymology? teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Etymology is the study of the history and structure of words.

When we study etymology we learn the origins of words.


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Teach etymology

Why?

  • Nearly 70% of multisyllabic words in English come from Greek and Latin roots.

  • Roots and affixes link new words to background knowledge.

  • Suffixes reveal the part of speech.

    How?

  • Provide an opportunity to discover prefixes, suffixes and roots.

  • Tell the stories of words.

wordsalive


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

The Structure and History of Words

An inflection: internal or external change in a word form which signifies some addition to or change in a word to denote a modification in meaning.

A derivation: a tracing of the meaning and formation of a word to its origin.

wordsalive


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

The Structure and History of Words

Inflections: secede, secession, succeed, success, intercede, intercession, precede, preceding, recede, receding, receded, exceed, proceed, procedure, precession, process, concede, concession...

All of the cede words originated from the same Latin root meaning to go or to yield.

wordsalive


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

The Vocabulary

Etymology - etymos: true, actual, real

logos: word, speech

Inflections - flectare: to bend, turn

Derivation - riva: stream

Language - lingua: tongue, language

wordsalive


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Composition and Derivation of English Words

Four Divisions:

1. Primitive/Primary Words: words that cannot be resolved into simpler elements (man, horse, run)

2. Derivative Words: words which consist of significant parts which exist either separately or in other combinations (man-ly, man-hood)

3. Compound Words: words consisting of two or more parts, each a significant word in itself (apple-tree, tea-spoon)

4. Hybrid Words: words with elements from different languages (gentleman, footsteps)

wordsalive


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

The Vocabulary:

Affixes:

Prefixes: intensify or negate enlarge, commingle, redo, misquote

Suffixes - show part of speech or number

dog/dogs

internal/internally/intern/internist/

internalize/ internalization

wordsalive


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

The Stories of Words

Do you know where the word italics comes from?

We use italics frequently, but do we know its origin?

The name for the slanted form of type comes from Aldus Manutius, an Italian printer who published the first book with this kind of type in 1501. The book, a work by Virgil, was dedicated “To Italy” and subsequently, other printers, publishers, and writers began referring to the unique type as “Italian” and eventually in English, “italics.”

wordsalive

The Word Origin Calendar, (2000, October 5) Accord Publishing.


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Recent Journal Article

“Learning clusters of words that share a common origin helps students understand content area material.”

Dorothy Grant Hennings

“Contextually relevant word study: Adolescent vocabulary development across the curriculum”

Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44:3 November 2000 pages 268-279

wordsalive


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Etymology teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Date: Fri Jan 21 00:04:25 EST 2000

Subject: A.Word.A.Day--enormity

Address: [email protected]

Enormity (I-NOR-mi-tee) noun

1. The quality of passing all moral bounds; excessive wickedness or outrageousness.

2. A monstrous offense or evil; an outrage.

3. (Usage Problem) Great size; immensity.

wordsalive


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What is Morphology? teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Morphology is the study of the building blocks of words.

A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning into which a word can be broken.


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Related words/ Word Families

Why?

  • “For every word a child learns … there are an average of one to three additional words…”(Baumann and Kameenui, 1991)

  • Links new words to students’ background knowledge.

  • Facilitates decoding through chunking.

    How?

  • Find the root or the affix and use it in another word from the students’ repertoires.

wordsalive


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Comprehension teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Etymology and Morphology

polygon

poly - many

gon - angle

Greek noun

polytheism

polyphony


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Related words teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Word families

antonym

synonym

anonymous

synonymous

eponym

homonym

anonymity

contronym

onym


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Build your own family of words. teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Related words

Word families


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Related Words - Word Families teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Build your own family of words.

aud bi bio

chron dict duce

graph ject phone

photo plex poly

port scribe sect

therm vis,vid voc

wordsalive


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99 syllables teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

From Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher

1. Display a list of 99 syllables which have been generated ahead of time from a group of interesting words.

2. Allow participants 15 minutes to reassemble the words into the original list.

3. Read aloud in alphabetical order the original words with the number of syllables, and assign one point for each syllable reassembled correctly.

4. For an easier variation of the game, use a smaller number of syllables.


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45 morphemes teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

a morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher

alpha cogn gener ize pol

ant com hens lab pol

ar con ic logy pre

ate de ing morph re

ation di intro multi rect

ary duce ion non s

bet eme ity onym syl

bul etymo ive para text

cod extra ize phrase voca

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45 morphemes teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

A morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher

Answers alphabetize introduce

antonym morpheme

comprehension multisyllabic

contexts nondirective

decoding paraphrase

etymology polarity

extrapolate recognize

generation vocabulary

wordsalive


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Decoding: Unlocking the pronunciation teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning.

Insurmountability

Steps by chunking:

1. Start with the suffix(es).

2. Proceed to the prefix(es).

3. Tackle the root.

4. Slide it all together.

In

sur

mount

abil

ity


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Will the Wordsalive Map move students to the deepest level of word knowledge ?

Baumann and Kameenui’s three levels of word knowledge

1. Association: with a single definition or context

2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite

3. Generation: ability to produce a novel response

According to Janis Harmon, moving from comprehension to generation takes time, effort, discussion, classification and usage. Help students pause and reflect before generating novel responses. Postpone the last steps of the map until comprehension can develop.


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Generation of word knowledge ?

Draw a picture?

Why?

  • A picture is worth a thousand words.

  • A personal clue helps the student internalize a new word.

    How?

  • Anything goes.

We learn more when we are self-involved.


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Generation of word knowledge ?

Create the caption

Why?

  • Writing an original sentence helps the student internalize a new word.

    How?

  • Use the word in any of its forms.

We learn more when we are self-involved.


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How do we select the vocabulary to teach to students? of word knowledge ?

Michael Graves asks four important questions:

1. Is understanding the word important to understanding the selection in which it appears?

2. Are students able to use the context or structural analysis to discover the word’s meaning?

3. Can working with this word be useful in furthering student’s context, structural analysis, or dictionary skills?

4. How useful is this word outside of the reading selection being taught?

“A Vocabulary Program to Complement and Bolster a Middle-Grade Comprehension Program.” (2000). Reading for Meaning 116-135.


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Does Wordsalive include all the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction?

Eileen Carr and Karen Wixson provide four guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction.

Students should:

  • relate new vocabulary to background knowledge.

  • develop elaborated word knowledge.

  • be actively involved in learning.

  • develop strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently.

    Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction (1986) Journal of Reading, 29.7, 558-595.


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Alternate Wordsalive Map vocabulary instruction?

Parts of sentences(s) from the book which reveal the context

WORD

Definitions Dictionary

Paraphrased

Guessed

Synonym

Antonym

Etymology P.O.S.

Related words

Caption

Sketch


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Alternate Wordsalive Map vocabulary instruction?


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Alternate Wordsalive Map vocabulary instruction?

…into the deafening, paralyzing, horrifying dive…suddenly right back in the middle of the buffeting layer of cacophonous flak...

Cacophonous

harsh, discordant sounds

noise

pain

caco - harsh phone-sound ous - lots of Greek, adj.

cacophony phonics

discordant

harmonious

The band room was full of cacophonous sounds as the members warmed up before the director arrived.


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Linear Wordsalive Map vocabulary instruction?

Word ______________________________

Sentence__________________________________________________________________

Guessed definition ________________________________________________________

Dictionary definition ______________________________________________________

Paraphrased definition ____________________________________________________

Synonym _______________ Antonym or non-example_________________________

Etymology and P.O.S. ____________________________

Related words _________________________________

Caption _____

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________


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Let’s Revisit the Brainstorm vocabulary instruction?

  • Will the wordsalive map help your students learn new material?

  • Will the wordsalive map complement your existing vocabulary methods?

  • Is the wordsalive map an improvement over vocabulary instruction when you were a student?


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How will we measure success? vocabulary instruction?

  • Pre and post vocabulary tests

  • Teachers’ anecdotal records

  • Samples of student maps


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Wordsalive vocabulary instruction?A Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools

Vocabulary development is every teacher’s responsibility

www.pen.k12.va.us


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Implementation Plan vocabulary instruction?


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SIMULATION #3 vocabulary instruction?

Find a new partner.

  • Using a wordsalive map, choose a word from the list to map with your partner.

  • Take a short break.

  • Share, discuss, and ask questions.


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Word list for mapping vocabulary instruction?

civilization convert beneficial

computation digest conscious

emancipation erode incredible

hypothesis insulate prominent

inclusion prediction unconstitutional

polytheism reproduce static

vernacular satisfy villainous


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Created by vocabulary instruction?

Rebecca Count-Kahilla Montgomery County Public Schools

Joyce Johnston Tazewell County Public Schools

Catherine Rosenbaum Virginia Department of Education

Dennis Wimer Henrico Distant Learning Network

Scholarly review by

Janis Harmon University of Texas at San Antonio

Piloted by the faculty at

Spratley Middle School in Hampton, Virginia


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