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Vegetables. Webster’s dictionary refers to vegetables as “any plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible. The part of the plant used as a vegetable often serves as a common method of classification. Vegetables may be derived from almost any part of a plant: Roots Bulbs Stems

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Classification of vegetables l.jpg

Webster’s dictionary refers to vegetables as “any plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

The part of the plant used as a vegetable often serves as a common method of classification.

Vegetables may be derived from almost any part of a plant:

Roots

Bulbs

Stems

Leaves

Seeds

Flowers

Classification of Vegetables


Composition of vegetables l.jpg
Composition of Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

  • Legumes:Members of the plant family Leguminosae that are characterized by growing in pods.

  • Vegetable legumes include beans, peas, and lentils.


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Grading Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

Most fresh produce deteriorates too quickly to grade, so most grading is presently voluntary; it is based on:

Ripeness

Color

Shape

Size

Uniformity

Freedom from bruises and signs of decay.

The only fresh vegetables currently subject to USDA grading are:

Potatoes

Carrots

Onions

Purchasing Vegetables


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Purchasing Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

Selecting Vegetables

  • Vegetables are from living plants that grow in cycles with the passing seasons.

  • The season of the year is the most important consideration when selecting vegetables.


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Purchasing Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.


Purchasing vegetables10 l.jpg
Purchasing Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

Legumes

  • B e a n s , peas, and lentils serve as excellent sources of fiber, protein, iron, and complex carbohydrates.

  • The single common identifying factor among all legumes is that they grow as seeds within a pod.

  • Dried beans have served as a dietary staple since the Bronze Age.


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Purchasing Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.


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Shiitaki plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

Cremini

Oyster

Portabella

Button

Enoki


Preparation of vegetables l.jpg

Vegetables can be prepared by: plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

Dry-heat methods

Baking

Roasting

Sautéing

Deep-fat frying

Moist-heat methods

Simmering

Steaming

Microwaving

Preparation of Vegetables


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Serving styles also vary and include: plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

Plain

Buttered

Creamed

Au gratin:Food prepared with a browned or crusted top. A common technique is to cover the food with a bread crumb/sauce mixture and pass it under a broiler.

Glazed

Scalloped:Baked with milk sauce and bread crumbs.

Stuffed

…or in:

Soufflés

Omelets

Cream soups

Preparation of Vegetables


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Preparation of Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

  • Regardless of the cooking method or serving style selected, some general principles governing the handling and preparation of vegetables should be followed:

    • Buying

    • Storage

    • Washing

    • Cooking liquid

    • Timing


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Preparation of Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

  • When heated, vegetables undergo several changes in:

    • Texture

    • Flavor

    • Odor

    • Color

    • Nutrient retention

  • Understanding these phenomena can help to retain as much of their quality as possible during preparation.


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Preparation of Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

  • Degorge:To peel and slice vegetables, sprinkle them with salt, and allow them to stand at room temperature until droplets containing bitter substances form on the surface; the moisture is then removed.

  • Specific gravity:The density of a substance compared to another substance (usually water).


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Preparation of Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

  • Legumes are best prepared by simmering rather than boiling.

  • There are three methods for preparing dried beans:

    • Overnight soak

    • Short soak

    • No soak


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Preparation of Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.


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Refrigerated plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

A cooler temperature is the most important factor in reducing respiration rates, and most fresh vegetables will last at least three days if refrigerated.

Storage times for various vegetables are ultimately based on their water content.

Some vegetables require special storage treatment. For example:

Bean sprouts are best stored in a bowl of cold water in the refrigerator, and the water should be changed frequently.

Ginger root should be frozen or stored in an airtight container to trap its moisture.

Storage of Vegetables


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Storage of Vegetables plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

Dry Storage

  • Proper storage does not automatically imply refrigeration. For instance:

    • Tomatoes (unripe)

    • Eggplant

    • Winter squash

    • Tubers (potatoes)

    • Dried legumes

    • Most bulbs (onions)

      …should never be stored in a refrigerator.


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Controlled-Atmosphere Storage plant,” but more specifically as those that are edible.

This special method slows down the natural respiration of fresh vegetables by:

Reducing the amount of oxygen (below 21%)

Increasing the amount of carbon dioxide (above 0.03%)

…available to them while in storage.

Other advanced storage methods include:

Modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP)

Edible coatings

Plastic shrink- or stretch-wraps

Storage of Vegetables


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