The History of Crime  Corrections

The History of Crime Corrections PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction. This course will aim to explain:How various factors throughout the historical development of corrections influenced the basic operating foundations today.The linkage of theory and practiceThe difficulty in carrying out the functions of correctional agencies in a cost-efficient manner.

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The History of Crime Corrections

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1. Chapter 1 The History of Crime & Corrections

3. Introduction (cont) Corrections includes a wide variety of activities, each with a wide variety of emphases and goals Some of the components have direct relationships with other correctional or criminals justice activities, and others operate almost independently

4. What is Corrections? The term ‘penology’ was used until the 1950s The study of the use of punishment for criminal acts Corrections indicates the broader purpose of US prisons the range of community and institutional sanctions, treatment programs, and services for managing offenders

5. The Mission of Corrections Carry out the sentence of the court To protect society Surveillance and control of offenders Treatment and rehabilitation Incapacitation

6. Corrections as part of The Criminal Justice System (CJS)

7. The Correctional Funnel & Correctional Policy

8. Why Should Students Study Corrections? Corrections is a “booming business” Everyone seems to have some knowledge of the CJS, and most have an opinion on how it should operate

9. Why Should Students Study Corrections?

10. Why Should Students Study Corrections?

11. Why Should Students Study Corrections? This increases have been driven by a belief that crime has been on the rise over this time frame However, crime has been declining since the early 90s Public perception drives policy though

12. Theories of Crime & Punishment Classical School - Cesare Beccaria Purpose of punishment is the prevention of crime Punishment must be certain, swift and dictated by law to deter crime Emphasis on free will & hedonism Jeremy Bentham Hedonistic Calculus - our objective is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain

13. Theories of Crime & Punishment Positivism - Cesare Lombroso Scientific method – problem, hypothesis, data Lombroso looked at biological features, and determined that criminality was biologically determined by atavism

14. Theories of Crime & Punishment Neoclassical School - Gabriel Tarde Balance between Classical and Positivist There’s a big gap between total free will and determinism, and in that gap is ‘reality’ We choose our actions, but our options may be limited

15. Early Responses to Crime Early responses were very brutal, & attempted to match the punishment to the crime Banishment and transportation Colonial America punishments were very similar - corporal punishments and gaols. Fee system - those who could afford it could pay money to avoid jail. John Howard - early jail reformer - pushes change to more humane treatment, and coins the term penitentiary

16. The Development of the Prison William Penn & the Quaker influence Abolition of capital punishment for all crimes besides murder Hard labor instead of corporal punishments Provision of free food and lodging for inmates Houses of detention, rather than stocks These concepts became the basis of The Walnut Street Jail and The Pennsylvania System

17. Pennsylvania System

18. Auburn System

19. Prisons Throughout the Last Two Centuries Irish System - Indeterminate sentencing, emphasizing preparing offenders for release 1870 - National Prison Association (now known as American Correctional Association) is formed, ushering in the Reformatory Era (1870-1910)

20. Prisons Throughout the Last Two Centuries Industrial Era - 1910-1935 Period of Transition - 1935-1960 1964 - Cooper v. Pate - ends the ‘hands-off doctrine’ Rehabilitative Era - 1960-1980 Medical Model Reintegration Retributive Era - 1980-present

21. Sentencing Goals of Corrections Punishment Deterrence Specific General Incapacitation Selective Incapacitation Rehabilitation Restitution

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