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1. The appendages of arthropods are found only on the head.
hard and immovable.
jointed and extend from the body wall.
divided into six branches.
2. What substance found in the skeleton of a desert-dwelling beetle is likely to be absent from the skeleton of an aquatic beetle? chitin
3. Figure 281 shows the respiratory system of a grasshopper. The structures labeled X are called tracheal tubes.
4. The structures labeled X in Figure 281 are filled with water.
5. Which of the following habitats do arthropods occupy? the sea
all of the above
6. Typical primitive arthropods had bodies that were composed of many segments.
7. The evolution of arthropods has led to more body segments and more specialized appendages.
fewer body segments and more specialized appendages.
more body segments and fewer specialized appendages.
fewer body segments and fewer specialized appendages.
8. What does molting enable arthropods to do? to breathe
9. Which of these events is the first to happen when an arthropod molts? The animal fills with air or fluids.
A new skeleton is secreted.
The animal pulls itself out of the original skeleton.
Skin glands digest the inner part of the skeleton.
10. An arthropod is vulnerable to predators during the molting period because it must come out of hiding to molt.
its new exoskeleton is soft.
molting cannot occur without the assistance of predators.
predators are more numerous during this period.
11. Which of the following invertebrates is NOT a crustacean? horseshoe crab
12. Arthropods are classified based on the number and structure of their eyes and wings.
body segments and appendages.
muscles and bones.
gills and hearts.
13. Which appendages are especially important in the classification of arthropods? mouthparts
14. An example of a chelicerate is a lobster.
15. Insects are classified as crustaceans.
16. The easiest way to tell whether an arthropod is an insect or a spider is to observe its color.
count its legs.
count its swimmerets.
measure the length of its body.
17. One similarity between a spider and a crayfish is that both animals have chelicerae and pedipalps.
two pairs of antennae.
chelipeds and mandibles.
a cephalothorax and an abdomen.
18. The respiratory organ in terrestrial chelicerates is the chelicera.
19. Spiders feed by swallowing their prey whole.
biting off and swallowing pieces of their prey.
sucking up prey tissues that have been liquefied by enzymes.
sipping nectar through a tubelike mouthpart.
20. How many pairs of legs are there on most body segments of a centipede? one
21. If a butterfly touches sugar water with one of its legs, it usually will begin to feed. If it touches salt water, it usually will not feed. The most likely explanation for this difference in response is that butterflies cannot tell the difference between sugar water and salt water.
can distinguish sugar water from salt water by sight.
use the ears behind their legs to distinguish sugar water from salt water.
have chemical receptors for taste on their legs.
22. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the evolutionary success of insects? The ability to fly has allowed insects to colonize new habitats.
Insects as a group are not very diverse because there are relatively few species.
Insects use many sense organs to respond to stimuli.
Many insects have a life cycle in which the young are very different from adults.
23. The compound eyes of insects are made of many lenses.
are located on the thorax.
produce an image that is more detailed than what humans see.
are not very good at detecting movement.
24. The body of an insect is divided into a head and a thorax.
head and a cephalothorax.
head, a thorax, and an abdomen.
cephalothorax and an abdomen.
25. An insect can detect minute movements in its environment by using its compound eyes and its Malpighian tubules.
26. Which of the following is NOT a stage of complete metamorphosis? nymph
27. An example of an insect that undergoes incomplete metamorphosis is the moth.
28. One difference between a nymph and a larva is that a nymph can fly, but a larva cannot.
is specialized for reproduction, but a larva is not.
resembles an adult of the same species, but a larva does not.
molts to become a pupa, but a larva molts to become an adult.
29. In most ant societies, egg-laying is performed by the workers.
hundreds of queens.
30. Honeybees use dances to lure insects of other species.
signal the death of a member of the colony.
convey information about food sources.
31. When a honeybee performs the waggle dance, the direction of the food is indicated by the direction of the straight run.
number of straight runs in the dance.
number of circles in the dance.
frequency with which the bee changes direction.
32. To determine whether an animal is a cnidarian or an echinoderm, you should determine its habitat.
find out if it has a backbone.
study its embryonic development.
discover whether it is aquatic or terrestrial.
33. In echinoderms, body parts usually occur in multiples of two.
34. Echinoderms are like vertebrates in that echinoderms are bilaterally symmetrical as larvae and as adults.
have an anterior end and a posterior end.
35. In most species of echinoderms, respiration occurs mainly in the tube feet.
36. The skeleton of an echinoderm is an exoskeleton made of calcium carbonate.
exoskeleton made of chitin.
endoskeleton made of calcium carbonate.
endoskeleton made of chitin.
37. In an echinoderm, the structure that operates like a living suction cup is the madreporite.
38. The water vascular system of echinoderms is involved with each of the following body functions EXCEPT respiration.
39. Which of the following statements about the water vascular system of echinoderms is correct? The ring canal connects to the madreporite.
The madreporite forms a circle around the animals mouth.
The tube feet are attached to the ring canal.
Each radial canal opens to the outside.
40. Which structure is part of an echinoderms water vascular system? skin gill
41. The echinoderms that look like warty, moving pickles are sea urchins.
42. Sea lilies and feather stars make up the oldest class of echinoderms.
feed by scraping algae from rocks.
are the only echinoderms that live in fresh water.
are disk-shaped echinoderms that often burrow into the sand.
43. The plates of the endoskeleton are reduced and contained inside a soft, muscular body wall in sand dollars.
44. Two echinoderms that are in the same class are brittle stars and sea stars.
sea stars and sea cucumbers.
sea cucumbers and sea urchins.
sea urchins and sand dollars.
45. In the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, extensive areas of coral have been destroyed by the crown of thorns, which is a type of sea cucumber.
46. One of the common features of arthropods is a tough endoskeleton. _________________________ True
47. Living arthropods generally have fewer body segments than ancestral arthropods. _________________________ True
48. The process in which an arthropod sheds its skeleton and manufactures a larger one is called flexing. _________________________ True
49. The three major groups of arthropods are crustaceans, chelicerates, and uniramians. _________________________ True
50. In a crayfish, the carapace is the part of the skeleton that covers the abdomen. _________________________ True
51. If an arthropod has antennae and its body is divided into a cephalothorax and an abdomen, the arthropod is classified in the group called chelicerates. _________________________ True
52. In a crayfish, the chelipeds have large claws. _________________________. True
53. The mouthparts of insects consist of three pairs of appendages, including a pair of chelicerae. _________________________ True
54. If an insect exists as a nymph before becoming an adult, the insect goes through complete metamorphosis. _________________________ True
55. When a honeybee performs the round dance, it indicates that a food source has a low energy value by changing direction less frequently than it would if the food were high quality. _________________________ True
56. An adult starfish has radial symmetry. _________________________ True
57. Echinoderms are animals in which the blastopore develops into an anus. _________________________ True
58. An echinoderms water vascular system opens to the outside through the ring canal. _________________________ True
59. When an echinoderm exerts a pulling force on an object, muscles pull the centers of the tube feet upward. _________________________ True
60. Some sea urchins defend themselves using long, sharp arms. _________________________ True
61. Participant Scores
62. In arthropods, ganglia are located along a ventral _________________________.
63. Each segment in the body of a trilobite had two ____________________ attached to it.
64. A typical primitive arthropod had many identical ____________________, each with a pair of appendages.
65. Arthropods must undergo periods of ____________________ because their skeletons cannot grow.
66. Arthropods are classified on the basis of the number and structure of their body segments and ____________________.
68. On the chelicerate in Figure 282, the appendage labeled 1 is a(an) ____________________.
69. On the chelicerate in Figure 282, the appendages labeled 2, which contain fangs, are called ____________________.
70. A uniramian with wings must be a(an) ____________________.
71. Insects have ____________________ pairs of legs.
72. An immature grasshopper resembles an adult grasshopper but does not have wings. Therefore, grasshoppers undergo ____________________ metamorphosis.
73. Within a society, particular tasks or roles are performed by groups of individuals called ____________________.
74. Echinoderms excrete nitrogen-containing cellular wastes primarily in the form of ____________________.
75. In an echinoderm, oxygen is carried throughout the body by the _________________________ system.
76. In the water vascular system of a sea star, the _________________________ connect the ring canal with the tube feet.
77. Echinoderm X has slender, flexible arms, can move rapidly, and feeds on detritus. This echinoderm is a(an) _________________________.
78. List three features that are present in the body plan of arthropods.
79. How would the body plan of a typical primitive arthropod probably differ from that of a living arthropod such as a crayfish?
80. Suppose an arthropod lacked the skin glands that normally are responsible for digesting the inner part of the skeleton. How would this defect affect the arthropods ability to grow?
81. Suppose you observed an arthropod whose body was divided into a cephalothorax and an abdomen. To which of the three major groups of arthropods could this specimen belong?
82. Identify the respiratory organs used by spiders and by horseshoe crabs.
83. How are mites and ticks harmful to humans?
84. Name two ways in which insects are beneficial to humans.
86. Figure 283 shows the development of a beetle. Identify the stages labeled 1 through 4.
87. What type of metamorphosis is shown in Figure 283?
88. If you found a caterpillar of a species you had never seen before, why would it be difficult to predict what the adult of that species looks like?
89. How does a worker ant communicate the location of a food source to other ants in the colony?
90. Contrast the body symmetry of echinoderms as larvae and adults.
91. Why are echinoderms considered to be more closely related to chordates than to other invertebrates?
92. What will happen if a sea star is pulled into pieces?
93. How is suction involved in the feeding of a sea star?
94. A friend tells you that he has found a small animal with a segmented body and jointed appendages. On the basis of these two features, he concludes that the animal is an arthropod. Evaluate his conclusion.
95. Describe the events that take place when an arthropod molts.
96. Describe the external structural differences between spiders and insects.
97. Compare and contrast centipedes and millipedes.
98. Contrast barnacles and horseshoe crabs in terms of their classification, structure, and habitat.
99. One reason that is cited for the evolutionary success of insects is that many young insects differ from adults in appearance and feeding methods. However, this reason generally applies only to insects undergoing one of the two types of insect metamorphosis. What is that type of metamorphosis? Why doesnt the other type of metamorphosis have this advantage?
100. Explain how a worker honeybee communicates the location of food that is more than 50 meters from the hive.
101. Describe reproduction and development in sea stars.
102. Explain how echinoderms can survive without a specialized circulatory, respiratory, or excretory system.
103. How does a sea stars skeleton enable a sea star to feed in a way that a sand dollar cannot?