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Sustainable Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse. Takashi Asano SlawomirW. Hermanowicz Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Davis and Berkeley. Photo Credits. California Department of Water Resources Water Education Foundation Du Pont Permasep Products.

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Sustainable Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse

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Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

Sustainable Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse

Takashi Asano

SlawomirW. Hermanowicz

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of California, Davis and Berkeley


Photo credits

Photo Credits

  • California Department of Water Resources

  • Water Education Foundation

  • Du Pont Permasep Products


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

  • State of California as an Example

    • Population growth and urbanization

  • Sustainability and Water

    • The role of water reuse with examples

  • Technological Development

    • How safe is water reuse


Increasing water demand in california water plan update 160 98

Increasing Water Demand in California (Water Plan Update 160-98)

1995

2020

Urban

11%

Environmental

46%

Environmental

46%

Agricultural

43%


Sustainability and water

Sustainability and Water

  • Meet supply and demand


Sustainability and water1

Sustainability and Water

  • “We are here consecrating this water supply and dedicating the Aqueduct to you and your children and your children’s children for all time.”


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

1995, by Ray Sterner,

Johns Hopkins University


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

200 commercial crops, ¼ of the nation’s table foods, and ½ of fruits and vegetables


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

Recovering Sustainable Water from Wastewater


The role of water reuse 1

The Role of Water Reuse - 1

  • Very often society no longer has the luxury of using water only once

  • For water supplies to be sustainable, the rate at which water is withdrawn needs to be in balance with the rate of renewal or replenishment

  • Water recycling and reuse as an alternative water resource

  • Drought and dependable water supply


The role of water reuse 2

The Role of Water Reuse - 2

  • Seven categories of water reuse - examples

  • Treatment technologies and process reliability

  • How safe is water reuse?

  • Future perspectives - all living species in harmony


Quality change in use of water

Repurified water/

NEWater

Water Reclamation

and Reuse

Drinking

Water

Quality of Water

Unpolluted

Water

Reclaimed

Water

Municipal and Industrial Use

Water Treatment

Wastewater

Treatment

Treated

Effluent

Wastewater

Time Sequence (No Scale)

Quality Change in Use of Water


Categories of reuse

Categories of Reuse

1.Agricultural Irrigation

2.Landscape Irrigation

3.Industrial Reuse

4.Groundwater Recharge

5.Recreational and Environmental

6.Nonpotable Urban Reuses

7.Potable Reuse


Reclaimed water use in california

Reclaimed Water Use in California

Source: May 2000, Office of Water Recycling,

California State Water Resources Control Board


Wastewater reuse

Wastewater Reuse


Regional water supply sources comparison san diego ca

2000

Other Imported 11%

Ground

Water

3%

MWD

84%

Transfers

25%

Ground

Water

7%

Surface

Water

11%

Surface

Water

11%

Recycling

7%

Recycling

2%

Seawater

Desalination

3%

MWD

36%

Regional Water Supply Sources Comparison – San Diego, CA

2020


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

Orange County Water Factory 21

Granular Activated Carbon

Chlorine Disinfection

Deep Well Injection

Lime Clarification

Recarbon-ation

Filtration

Reverse Osmosis

Aquifer Recharge

1976 - 2004 (28 years of operation)

21 million M3/ yr (15 mgd)

No more than 5% of the reclaimed water actually comprises the domestic supply

No observed water quality degradation that constitutes a public health concern


Benefit of water reuse

Benefit of Water Reuse

  • Important element of integrated water resources management

  • Treated effluent is used as a water resource for beneficial purposes

  • The wastewater is kept out of streams, lakes, and beaches; thus reducing pollution of surface water and groundwater


How safe is water reuse

How safe is water reuse?

Acceptable health risks debate

  • Absolute risk vs. relative risk

    Microbiological risk assessment

  • Enteric virus control by treatment technologies

  • Regulatory oversight

     Chemical risk assessment


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

Significant

Epidemiological data

on acute effects

Range of Detection limit with current analytical methods

Epidemiological data on long term effects

Significance to human health risk

Mammalian toxicity testing

Other in vivo toxicity or endocrine disrupting effect assay

In vitro toxicity assay

In vitro endocrine disrupting effect assay

Unknown

10-12

(pg/L)

10-9

(ng/L)

10-3

(mg/L)

10-6

(g/L)

g/L

Concentration range

Various assay methods for trace organic compounds and their relative significance to human health risk


Technical solutions

Technical Solutions


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

Raw sewage

Pre-treatment

Primary clarifier

Activated sludge

Secondary clarifier

Lime softening

Clarification

Sludge dewatering disposal

Sludge digester

Air stripping

Recarbonation

Sand filtration

GAC adsorption

Reverse osmosis

Treated water

Conventional Advanced Wastewater Treatment


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

Raw sewage

Pretreatment

Immersed membrane activated sludge

Reverse osmosis

Treated water

Sludge dewatering disposal

Immersed membrane activated sludge and RO


Sustainable wastewater reclamation and reuse

Adapted from Du Pont PERMASEP Permeators


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