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Survey of Existing Dams






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Survey of Existing Dams 1.096 Environmental Engineering Clinic Week 2 - February 13, 2004 Teresa Yamana Objective To gain insight into our assessment of the Merowe Dam in the areas of: Sedimentation Small Scale Impacts Archeology Public Health Resettlement
Survey of Existing Dams

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Slide 1

Survey of Existing Dams

1.096 Environmental Engineering Clinic

Week 2 - February 13, 2004

Teresa Yamana

Slide 2

Objective

  • To gain insight into our assessment of the Merowe Dam in the areas of:

    • Sedimentation

    • Small Scale Impacts

      • Archeology

      • Public Health

      • Resettlement

Slide 3

Three Gorges Dam, China - Yangtze River

www.cbc.ca/news/features/threegorges_quickfacts.html

Slide 4

Purpose

Flood prevention

Power generation

Cost: $24.7 billion

Expected Completion: 2009

Height: 175 m

Reservoir

Area: 1080 km2

Volume: 39.3 bcm

Power Capacity: 18,200MW

Dam Overview

Slide 5

Sedimentation in Reservoir

  • 40 year sedimentation observation data

  • Store clean water during dry season, sluice muddy water in flood season

  • Scouring and silting to reach balance

  • Initial sediment discharge rate 30-40%

  • Storage remaining after 100 years

    • Flood storage: 86%

    • Regulated storage: 92%

Slide 6

Downstream Effect of Sedimentation

  • Erosion of riverbed, leading to decrease in water level between 0.5 - 8.0m

  • Requires minimum 5000 m3/s discharge at Yichang shiplock

  • Caving banks

  • Shallow bendways impede local navigation

  • Mitigate damage of flood and waterlogging in Dongting Lake area

Slide 7

Archeology

1300 Archeological sites to be submerged

Cultural relics from various dynasties

200 ancient tombs

International effort to excavate

Public Health

Unlikely increase in schistosomiasis

Likely increase in malaria, other local water related diseases

Resettlement

844,124 residents

Relocate 130 villages

Small Scale Impacts

Slide 8

Aswan Dam, Egypt - Nile River

www.usgs.gov/features/ satellite_images.html

Slide 9

Purpose

Flood prevention

Power generation

Cost: $1 billion

Completed: 1970

Height: 111 m

Reservoir

Area: 6000 km2

Volume: 169 bcm

Power Capacity: 21,000 MW

Dam Overview

Slide 10

Sedimentation in Reservoir

  • Majority of sediment inflow trapped in tail end of reservoir

  • Dead storage capacity of 31.6 bcm for 500 years

  • Feasibility study being conducted for uses of sediments

  • Lack of sediments downstream means farmers use 13,000 t fertilizer

Slide 11

Small Scale Impacts

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/

UNESCO Courier, Dec. 1964.

  • Archeology

    • Twin temples of Pharoah Ramses II relocated by UNESCO

Slide 12

Small Scale Impacts

  • Public Health

    • Schistosomiasis associated with stagnant water from Dam

  • Resettlement

    • 90,000 Nubians displaced

      • In Egypt, 28 miles away

      • In Sudan, 370 miles away

Slide 13

Tarbela Dam - Indus River, Pakistan

www.pakwapda.com/htmls/ water-dams.html

www.dams.org

Slide 14

Purpose

Part of Indus Basin Irrigation System

Irrigation

Power generation

Cost: $1.85 billion

Completed:1993

Height: 148 m

Reservoir

Area: 259 km2

Volume: 11.5 bcm

Power Capacity: 3478 MW

Dam Overview

Slide 15

Sedimentation in Reservoir

  • Sediment inflow 0.106 bcm/yr

  • Useful life 85 years

  • Concern about sediments blocking power intakes in case of earthquake

    • Underwater protection to low-level outlets

  • Sediment management

    • Sluicing tunnels to remove sediment

    • Management measures to reduce sediment deposition

    • Not feasible to reduce sediment inflow

Slide 16

Small Scale Impacts

  • Resettlement

    • 120 villages submerged

    • 96,000 people

    • Replacement land in Punjab or Sindh, or cash compensation for home

    • Widespread dissatisfaction

Slide 17

References

  • Three Gorges Dam

    • Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Research Inst. For Protection of Yangtze Water Resources. Environmental Impact Statement for the Yangtze Three Gorges Project

    • Nova. Damming the Past www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/zeugma/

  • Aswan High Dam

    • Marc Lavergne. The Seven Deadly Sins of Egypt’s Aswan High Dam

    • Asit K. Biswas. Aswan Dam Revisited

    • Hassan Osman. Hydro Development in Egypt - Lessons from High Aswan Dam

    • The Aswan High Dam http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa012698.htm

  • Tarbela Dam

    • World Commision on Dams. Pakistan: The Tarbela Dam and Indus River Basinwww.dams.org/kbase/studies/pk/pk_exec.htm

    • Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority http://www.pakwapda.com/htmls/water-dams.html


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