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STORAGE OF SOLVENTS/GASES . Storage of Solvent. Common Solvents : Acetone, Acrylamide , Benzene, Methanol, Toluene, etc. Solvent Properties: High volatility at ambient temperature Inflammable Toxic. Difficulties faced. Loss of solvent due to: Breathing losses:

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storage of solvent
Storage of Solvent
    • Common Solvents:
    • Acetone, Acrylamide, Benzene, Methanol, Toluene, etc.
  • Solvent Properties:
    • High volatility at ambient temperature
    • Inflammable
    • Toxic
difficulties faced
Difficulties faced
  • Loss of solvent due to:
    • Breathing losses:

Vapor pressure variation with temperature

    • Filling losses:

Discharging and Refilling losses

    • Boiling losses:

Vapor pressure higher than atmospheric pressure

types of tanks
Types of Tanks
  • Standard Fixed-Roof Storage Tank
  • Variable Volume Tanks
    • Vapor Lift Roof Type
    • Internal Floating Roof Type
    • External Floating Roof Type
    • Pan
    • Pontoon
    • Double-Deck
accessories
Accessories
  • Seal
  • Drains
  • Pipe Supports
  • Vents
  • Manholes
  • Rolling Ladder
  • Anti-Rotation Device
  • Gauge Platform
slide7

Floating Roof Type

Vapor Lift Type

example methanol storage
Example: Methanol Storage
  • Type of storage tank: Floating roof tank
  • Safety accessories:
    • Provision for fire-fighting
    • Provision for raw water sprays incase of increased temperatures
    • Pressure and temperature indicators
    • Biofilter and scrubber assembly to avoid environmental pollution due to filling losses.
standards for vocs
Standards for VOCs

Source: KRS Chapter 77 Air Pollution Control

storage of gases
STORAGE OF GASES
  • Currently more than 200 substances shipped in compressed cylinders
  • Two major groups: liquefied & non-liquefied
  • Compressed gases lumped into families
    • Atmospheric Gases
    • Fuel Gases
    • Refrigerant Gases
    • Poisonous Gases
hazards associated with gases in cylinders
Hazards associated with gases in cylinders
  • Fire / Explosion from the release of flammable gases near ignition sources
  • Spontaneous combustion from oxidizing gases
  • Exposure to toxic or corrosive gases
  • Asphyxiation
  • Gases stored under 100’s of atmospheres of pressure
pressure related hazards
Pressure Related Hazards
  • Valve damage – leakage of gas
  • Cryogenic/Liquefied Gases-Frostbite on release
  • Heating/Impact – Explosion/Shrapnel
  • Denser than air gases – tend to collect
  • Rapid release & Expansion – Cold Hazard
  • Large gas cylinders – severe strain from inappropriate handling
gas storage vessels
Gas storage vessels
  • Low Pressure Storage Tanks (LPST)
  • Static Mobile Pressure Vessels (SMPV)
  • Spherical Storage vessels
  • Horton spheres
large scale ammonia storage and handling
LARGE SCALE AMMONIASTORAGE AND HANDLING
  • Why are these facilities needed?
  • Why is refrigeration needed?
  • What are the major components?
  • How is ammonia transported to and from the facilities?
major components
Major Components
  • Low Pressure Storage Tank
  • Compressor
  • Flash Tank / Intercooler
  • Condenser
  • Receiver
refrigeration in an ammonia storage facility
Refrigeration in an AmmoniaStorage Facility
  • Superheated vapor passes from storage tank to 1st stage of compression
  • Hot vapor from 1st stage cooled in flash tank preparation for 2nd stage
  • Vapor at saturation temperature passes to 2nd stage compression
  • Hot vapor passes to the condenser: Heat rejected to environment
  • Condensed ammonia gravity drains into the receiver
refrigeration contd
Refrigeration (contd.)
  • Receiver level control sends liquid to flash tank
  • Flash tank level control sends liquid, at intermediate pressure, to the storage tank
  • Flare for burning ammonia vapor during refrigeration system interruption
  • Knockout pot protect the compressors from damaging liquid entry are also utilized
case study boston molasses disaster
Case Study: Boston Molasses Disaster
  • Great Molasses Flood / Great Boston Molasses Tragedy
  • January 15, 1919: Neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts
  • Bursting of Molasses Tank
  • 21 Killed, 150 Injured
slide21

Huge Molasses Tank Collapsed

  • 15 m tall; 27 m dia.
  • Unleashed an immense wave of molasses
  • Moving at 56 km/hr and 200 kPa
  • Causes: Poor Construction & Improper Testing
  • Rise in air temperature
  • Fermentation: Production of Carbon di Oxide
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