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STORAGE OF SOLVENTS/GASES . Storage of Solvent. Common Solvents : Acetone, Acrylamide , Benzene, Methanol, Toluene, etc. Solvent Properties: High volatility at ambient temperature Inflammable Toxic. Difficulties faced. Loss of solvent due to: Breathing losses:

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Storage of solvent
Storage of Solvent

  • Common Solvents:

  • Acetone, Acrylamide, Benzene, Methanol, Toluene, etc.

  • Solvent Properties:

    • High volatility at ambient temperature

    • Inflammable

    • Toxic


  • Difficulties faced
    Difficulties faced

    • Loss of solvent due to:

      • Breathing losses:

        Vapor pressure variation with temperature

      • Filling losses:

        Discharging and Refilling losses

      • Boiling losses:

        Vapor pressure higher than atmospheric pressure


    Types of tanks
    Types of Tanks

    • Standard Fixed-Roof Storage Tank

    • Variable Volume Tanks

      • Vapor Lift Roof Type

      • Internal Floating Roof Type

      • External Floating Roof Type

      • Pan

      • Pontoon

      • Double-Deck


    Accessories
    Accessories

    • Seal

    • Drains

    • Pipe Supports

    • Vents

    • Manholes

    • Rolling Ladder

    • Anti-Rotation Device

    • Gauge Platform


    Floating Roof Type

    Vapor Lift Type


    Example methanol storage
    Example: Methanol Storage

    • Type of storage tank: Floating roof tank

    • Safety accessories:

      • Provision for fire-fighting

      • Provision for raw water sprays incase of increased temperatures

      • Pressure and temperature indicators

      • Biofilter and scrubber assembly to avoid environmental pollution due to filling losses.


    Standards for vocs
    Standards for VOCs

    Source: KRS Chapter 77 Air Pollution Control


    Storage of gases
    STORAGE OF GASES

    • Currently more than 200 substances shipped in compressed cylinders

    • Two major groups: liquefied & non-liquefied

    • Compressed gases lumped into families

      • Atmospheric Gases

      • Fuel Gases

      • Refrigerant Gases

      • Poisonous Gases


    Hazards associated with gases in cylinders
    Hazards associated with gases in cylinders

    • Fire / Explosion from the release of flammable gases near ignition sources

    • Spontaneous combustion from oxidizing gases

    • Exposure to toxic or corrosive gases

    • Asphyxiation

    • Gases stored under 100’s of atmospheres of pressure


    Pressure related hazards
    Pressure Related Hazards

    • Valve damage – leakage of gas

    • Cryogenic/Liquefied Gases-Frostbite on release

    • Heating/Impact – Explosion/Shrapnel

    • Denser than air gases – tend to collect

    • Rapid release & Expansion – Cold Hazard

    • Large gas cylinders – severe strain from inappropriate handling


    Gas storage vessels
    Gas storage vessels

    • Low Pressure Storage Tanks (LPST)

    • Static Mobile Pressure Vessels (SMPV)

    • Spherical Storage vessels

    • Horton spheres


    Large scale ammonia storage and handling
    LARGE SCALE AMMONIASTORAGE AND HANDLING

    • Why are these facilities needed?

    • Why is refrigeration needed?

    • What are the major components?

    • How is ammonia transported to and from the facilities?


    Major components
    Major Components

    • Low Pressure Storage Tank

    • Compressor

    • Flash Tank / Intercooler

    • Condenser

    • Receiver


    Refrigeration in an ammonia storage facility
    Refrigeration in an AmmoniaStorage Facility

    • Superheated vapor passes from storage tank to 1st stage of compression

    • Hot vapor from 1st stage cooled in flash tank preparation for 2nd stage

    • Vapor at saturation temperature passes to 2nd stage compression

    • Hot vapor passes to the condenser: Heat rejected to environment

    • Condensed ammonia gravity drains into the receiver


    Refrigeration contd
    Refrigeration (contd.)

    • Receiver level control sends liquid to flash tank

    • Flash tank level control sends liquid, at intermediate pressure, to the storage tank

    • Flare for burning ammonia vapor during refrigeration system interruption

    • Knockout pot protect the compressors from damaging liquid entry are also utilized


    Case study boston molasses disaster
    Case Study: Boston Molasses Disaster

    • Great Molasses Flood / Great Boston Molasses Tragedy

    • January 15, 1919: Neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts

    • Bursting of Molasses Tank

    • 21 Killed, 150 Injured



    • Huge Molasses Tank Collapsed

    • 15 m tall; 27 m dia.

    • Unleashed an immense wave of molasses

    • Moving at 56 km/hr and 200 kPa

    • Causes: Poor Construction & Improper Testing

    • Rise in air temperature

    • Fermentation: Production of Carbon di Oxide



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