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Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk (WP 10). Ghent University (coordination) Steurbaut, W. & Garreyn, F. Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre Piñeros-Garcet, J.D., Van Bol, V. & Pussemier, L. International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention

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Occupational indicators for pesticide risk wp 10 l.jpg

Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk (WP 10)

Ghent University (coordination)

Steurbaut, W. & Garreyn, F.

Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre

Piñeros-Garcet, J.D., Van Bol, V. & Pussemier, L.

International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention

Visentin, S. & Tiramani, M.

RRSG-HAIR Joint Seminar on

Harmonised Environmental Indicators for Pesticide Risk

OECD Working Group on Pesticides / EU HAIR Steering Committee


Introduction l.jpg

WP 10 Development of indicators for human health for exposure during & after application:

Applicator

Farm worker

Bystander & Resident

Sensitive population groups (children, pregnant women,…)

Estimating risk using risk indices

Risk index (RI) = estimated human exposure

toxicological endpoint

Introduction

1

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Applicator indicator l.jpg

Acute exposure during & after application:

Applicator Indicator

  • RIop acute: acute operator Risk Index

  • IEop, acute: acute Internal Exposure operator (mg/kg bw/d)

  • AOEL: Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg/kg bw/d)

  • Area treated (ha/d)

  • BW: body weight (default: 70 kg)

  • AR: application rate (kg a.s./ha)

  • PPEi, PPEhand, PPEbody: Personal Protective Equipment Coefficients

  • Li, Lhand, Lbody (mg/kg a.s.) < EUROPOEM

  • AbI, AbD: inhalation/dermal absorption factor (-)

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Applicator indicator4 l.jpg
Applicator Indicator exposure during & after application:

Chronic

  • RIop,chronic: chronic operator Risk Index

  • IEop,chronic: chronic Internal Exposure operator (mg/kg bw/d)

  • IEop,acute: acute Internal Exposure operator (mg/kg bw/d)

  • AOEL: Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg/kg bw/d)

  • Nevents: Number of exposure events (equal the frequency of application)

  • AT: averaging time (e.g. 365 days for year averaged exposure)

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Re entry worker indicator l.jpg
Re-Entry worker Indicator exposure during & after application:

Acute

  • DE: dermal exposure (mg/person/day):foliage

  • 0.001: conversion factor for the units (-)

  • DFR: dislodgeable foliar residues (μg/cm² per kg applied/ha)

  • TF: transfer factor (cm²/person/d)

  • T: duration of re-entry (hr/d)

  • P: factor for PPE (with PPE: 0.1, no PPE: 1) (-)

  • Declination pesticide residues

(R²>0,85);

;

- exponential:

- logarithmic:

- ~ climatic factors (humidity, temperature,…), physico-chemical properties

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


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Re-Entry worker Indicator exposure during & after application:

Acute

  • DE: dermal exposure (mg/person/day):soil

    • dermal adherence concept

    • minor contribution

  • Algorithm: EUROPOEM II Re-Entry Working Group

  • ConcS: active substance soil concentration (mg/m³)

  • DAS: dermal adherence of soil (mg/cm²) (default: 0,44 mg/cm²)

  • SAC: contaminated skin area (cm²) (default: 820 cm²)

  • rsoil : soil bulk density (g/cm³)

  • TS/Sk: transfer from soil to skin (-)

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Re entry worker indicator7 l.jpg

Acute exposure during & after application:

Re-Entry worker Indicator

  • I: inhalation exposure (mg/person/day):greenhouse

  • I: potential inhalation exposure (mg a.s./d inhaled)

  • AR: application rate (kg a.s./ha)

  • T: duration of re-entry (hr/d)

  • TSF: task specific factor

  • I: inhalation exposure (mg/day): dust

Typically very low risk: route not considered

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Re entry worker indicator8 l.jpg
Re-Entry worker Indicator exposure during & after application:

Chronic

  • DE: dermal exposure (mg/person/day):

  • I: Inhalation exposure (mg/person/day)

  • DEchronic: chronic dermal exposure (mg/d)

  • DEacute: acute dermal exposure (mg/d)

  • Ichronic: chronic inhalation exposure (mg/person/day)

  • Iacute: chronic inhalation exposure (mg/person/day)

  • Nevents: Number of exposure events

  • WD: estimated number of workdays (d) (expert judgment)

  • AT: averaging time (d); yearly averaged chronic dose: AT = 365

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Bystander resident indicator l.jpg

No official implemented model on Community or national level exposure during & after application:

EFSA advice has been asked

RCEP-report new UK research:

BREAM Project:

Droplets and vapours

Modern equipment, speeds and boom height

Effects of terrain, hedges, buildings,…

EUROPOEM II – Bystander Working

Group approach: proposed for use

Bystander & Resident Indicator

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Bystander indicator l.jpg

Acute exposure during & after application:

Bystander Indicator

  • Dermal exposure (mg a.s./person/day): spray drift

  • AR: application rate (mg a.s./m²)

  • drift (%/100) depending on crop type, crop stage & distance

  • EA: exposed area (m²/person/d); (default:0.4225 m²/person/day)

  • fr: reduction factor (improved spraying equipment)

  • Drift: Regression functions derived from drift tables [BBA (2004) & Rautmann & Streloke (2001)]

  • A, B, C, D: regression parameters

  • x: distance from the treated field (default: 8 m)

  • H: hinge point

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Bystander indicator11 l.jpg

Acute exposure during & after application:

Bystander Indicator

  • I: Inhalation exposure (mg a.s./person/day)

  • EUROPOEM II approach

  • Def.: Arable sprayers = 0.03 ml spray/m³ breathed air

  • Def.: Orchards sprayers = 0.06 ml spray/m³ breathed air

  • Cinhaled: a.s. conc. in breathing zone (mg a.s./m³)

  • Cspray: a.s. conc. in spray solution (mg a.s./ml)

  • IR: inhalation rate (m³/hr)

  • T: duration of exposure (hr/d)

  • Based on operator inhalation

  • Ia: applicator respiratory exposure (mg/kg a.s.)

  • AR: application rate (kg a.s./ha)

  • WR: work rate (ha/dag)

  • ST: spraying time (min/ha); exposure during 1 min

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Bystander indicator12 l.jpg

Acute exposure during & after application:

Bystander Indicator

  • Total exposure (mg a.s./person/day) and risk index

  • DE: dermal exposure (mg a.s./person/d))

  • I: respiratory exposure (mg a.s./person/d)

  • AbD: dermal absorption factor

  • AbI: inhalation absorption factor

  • BW: body weight (default: 70 kg)

  • AOELadapted: Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg/kg bw/d)

  • Toxicity Parameter: AOEL (mg a.s./person/day)

    • Aim to protect in the worst case: favour continued use

    • Current research might imply setting of new toxicity endpoints (EFSA, 2006)

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Resident indicator l.jpg
Resident Indicator exposure during & after application:

Chronic

  • Dermal exposure (mg a.s./person/day)

  • Inhalation exposure (mg a.s./person/day)

  • DEchronic: chronic resident dermal exposure (mg/person/day)

  • DEacute: acute resident dermal exposure (mg/person/day)

  • Ichronic: chronic resident inhalation exposure (mg/person/day)

  • Cair: TWA concentration of the pesticide in the air (g a.s./m³)

  • IR: inhalation rate (m³ air/hr) (default: 0,82 m³/hr)

  • DED: daily exposure duration (hr/d)

  • Nevents: number of exposure events (-)

  • RD: resident days (d)

  • AT: averaging time (d); yearly averaged chronic dose: AT = 365 d

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Resident indicator14 l.jpg

Exposure assessment of residents nearby greenhouses: exposure during & after application:

(Scientific tool developed for USES)

Calculation up to a distance of 20 m

Calculation scheme: process oriented in stead of

use of emission factors

Relevant processes: volatilisation, deposition

& outdoor ventilation of remaining residues

Only inhalation exposure, dermal negligible

Validation:

Realistic worst case for highly volatile substances

Overestimation for less volatile substances

Resident Indicator

Experimental research is needed!

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Resident indicator15 l.jpg
Resident Indicator exposure during & after application:

  • Cgh, inair, nom, t=0: nominal gas-phase conc. in greenhouses

  • Hgh: height of the greenhouse (m) (default: 4,5 m)

  • AR: application rate (kg a.s./ha)

! whole amount is instantaneously and homogeneously distributed over the whole greenhouse volume!

! Worst case assumption !

Less realistic for high and low volume application

Introduction of a

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Resident indicator16 l.jpg
Resident Indicator exposure during & after application:

  • gh, inair, T : estimated gas-phase conc. in greenhouse over T (s) (µg/m³)

  • Cgh, inair, nom, t=0: nom. Gas-phase conc. directly after application (µg/m³)

  • a : empirical recovery facor (-)

  • kgh, dep, kgh, vent: dep., vent. rate constant in greenhouse (s-1)

    (standard greenhouse: resp. 2,66 10-4 & 1,67 10-4)

  • .T: time over which exposure is integrated (s)

  • Choice of a

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Resident indicator17 l.jpg
Resident Indicator exposure during & after application:

Source strength

  • : gas-phase conc. in lee eddy side up to 20 m (µg/m³)

  • : gas-phase conc. in greenhouse over T (s) (µg/m³)

  • kgh, dep, kgh, vent: dep., vent. rate constant in greenhouse (s-1)

  • (standard greenhouse: resp. 2,66 10-4 & 1,67 10-4)

  • T: time over which exposure is integrated (s)

  • Vgh: Volume greenhouse (m³) (default: 45.000 m³)

  • Agh,facade: surface area façade on the wind direction (m²) (450 m²)

  • Kgh: construction parameter (-) (default: 0,5)

  • u: wind velocity just above the roof (m/s) (arbitrary value of 3 m/s)

  • I: inhalation exposure (mg/day)

  • IR: inhalation rate (m³ air/hr)

  • DED: daily exposure duration (hr/d)

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Sensitive population groups l.jpg

Pregnant women: exposure during & after application:

application of bystander & resident indicator

No extra safety factor is taken into account

Children

application of bystander & resident indicator

Default values are adjusted:

IR: inhalation rate (m³/hr)

BW: body weight (kg)

EA: exposed area (m²/d)

Sensitive population groups

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Aggregate and cumulative risk assessment l.jpg

Directive 91/414/EEC exposure during & after application:

Data requirement: Annex II 7.17

Refers to being needed in "certain cases", no further guidance is given

No harmonised EU approach to date

EFSA Workshop – November 2006

UK approach (introduced in 2005)

Combined effects of PPPs considered

When evaluating new products

Re-registration applications

Major changes

Cumulative Aggregate

Aggregate and Cumulative Risk Assessment

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Aggregate and cumulative risk assessment20 l.jpg

Combined risk assessment recently considered by WiGRAMP exposure during & after application:

Aggregate and Cumulative Risk Assessment

UK approach

  • Basic assumptions:

    • Simple dose additivity for similar toxicological actions

    • Simple additivity of effect for different toxicological actions

    • Where two compounds act on the same organ but by different mechanisms

      further assessment required

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Aggregate and cumulative risk assessment21 l.jpg

Tiered Approach established by ACP and PSD exposure during & after application:

Consider estimated exposure as a fraction of AOEL for each active

If sum of proportions >100%

further assessment required

Compare against effect-specific reference values; Present a reasoned scientific case against interaction; amend use rates, timings, etc.

Additional specific studies focussing on common effects driving the risk assessment

Aggregate and Cumulative Risk Assessment

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


Aggregate and cumulative risk assessment22 l.jpg

Future Directions exposure during & after application::

PSD will develop methodology to assess multiple residues in foodstuffs

starting with anti-cholinesterase pesticides

Tank Mixes: usage data indicate no significant problem in UK

Influence of mixing formulation on dermal absorption

Research project commissioned by PSD – findings will be published

Aggregate and Cumulative Risk Assessment

WP 10: Occupational Indicators for Pesticide Risk


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