AMNIOTES
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AMNIOTES. Probably Also Evolved From Lepidospondyl or Temnospondyl Separation from Lissamphibian probably 340 MYA Includes Following Groups “Reptiles” Birds Mammals Monophyly Supported By Extraembryonic Membranes Skeletal Characters Single Penis. Most Temnospondys. Lissamphibia.

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AMNIOTES

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Modern reptile taxa

AMNIOTES

  • Probably Also Evolved From Lepidospondyl or Temnospondyl

  • Separation from Lissamphibian probably 340 MYA

  • Includes Following Groups

    • “Reptiles”

    • Birds

    • Mammals

  • Monophyly Supported By

    • Extraembryonic Membranes

    • Skeletal Characters

    • Single Penis


Modern reptile taxa

Most Temnospondys

Lissamphibia

Amniotes


Modern reptile taxa

What is a “Reptile”

Iguanas, Geckos,Snakes

Skinks, Glass Lizards

Birds and Dinos and Crocs

Tuatara

Turtles and Anapsids

Modern Mammals and Kin

Amphibian +incl Rep Ancestors


Modern reptile taxa

What is a “Reptile”

Iguanas, Geckos,Snakes

Skinks, Glass Lizards

Birds and Dinos and Crocs

Tuatara

Turtles and Anapsids

Modern Mammals and Kin

Modern Amphibians


Modern reptile taxa

Origin and Relationships of Modern Reptiles

Modern Reptiles +

Birds/Crocs (By Craggy)

Mammals)

Modern Amphibians

Lungfish

Coelocanths

Ray-finned Fish


Modern reptile taxa

MODERN “REPTILES”

1. Paraphyletic if birds are excluded

2. United by ecology (and sympleisiomorphies)

a. exothermic

b. amniotic eggs

c. left overs of Mesozoic

3. Three major groups

a. Testudines--Turtles

b. Crocodilians+Birds

c. Lepidosaura

1) Rynochoccephalia-- Tuatara

2) Squamata--Lizards and Snakes

4. About 15,800 species world-wide

(includes 8700 birds)


Modern reptile taxa

TESTUDINES--TURTLES

1. Morphology

a. Shell

b. Anapsid skull

c. Keratinous beak

d. Long-lived

e. Former commercial importance is reduced

1)Turtle soup

2) Fresh meat on ships

3) Tortoise shell as a material

2. Cosmopolitan in wet areas

3. Extensive radiation in Mesozoic

4. 260 species world-wide

5. Relationship to other “reptiles” is problematic


Modern reptile taxa

Chelydridae—Snapping Turtles

  • 3 Monotypic Genera

  • Asia and North America

  • Sit and Weight Predators of Slow Water

  • Economically Important Game Animal

  • Chelydra serpentina

  • Macroclemys temminckii


Modern reptile taxa

Emyidae—Basking Turtles

  • 3 12 Genera, 40 Species

  • Mostly N/A (except Trachemys)

  • Mostly Freshwater Omnivores

  • Some Terrestrial (Terrapene)

  • Economically Important Game/Pet Animal

  • Chrysomys picta


Modern reptile taxa

TETUDINIDAE: Tortoises

  • 11 Genera + 40 Species

  • Southern US to SA, Southern Eurasia + Africa

  • Truly Terrestrial

    • High Domed Shells

    • Gravipodal Legs

    • Body Pulls Into Shell

  • 2 Gopherus in US are on Endangered Species List


Modern reptile taxa

TRIONYCHIDAE: Softshell Turtles

  • 14 Genera + 27 Species

  • NA, Sub-Saharan Africa, China, Japan, SE Asia

  • Highly Aquatic

    • Little Ossification of Shells

    • Webbed Feet

    • Very Long Necks

    • Flat Bodies

  • 2 Apalone spinifer + A. mutica

  • Remain an Important Food Item


Modern reptile taxa

KINOSTERNIDAE: Mud + Musk Turtles

  • 3 Genera + 22 Species

  • Eastern NA through SA

  • Terrestrial Within Water?

    • Fairly Small (Local Ones)

    • Walk on Bottom

    • Hinged Shells Allow Complete Retraction

    • Able to Move Between Ephemeral Pools

    • Release Musk as a Defense

  • Kinosternon + Sternothorus


Modern reptile taxa

CHELONIDAE+ DERMOCHELYIDAE: Sea Turtles

  • 5 Genera + 6 Species + Monotypic

  • Temperate and Tropical Water Worldwide

  • Large Size 70-250cm

  • Leatherbacks are Largest

  • Legs modified for swimming

  • Come ashore only to lay eggs

  • Most severely reduced in numbers

    • Fresh Meat + Eggs

    • Uses of Shells

    • Disturbance of Eggs

    • Increase in Predation on Beaches

    • Floating Trash (Nets and Bags)

    • Flagship Species For Beaches


Modern reptile taxa

CHELIDAE: Snake-necked Turtles

  • 11 Genera + 50 Species

  • South America, Australia, New Guinea

  • Long-necked Turtles of Slow Water

  • Ecological Equivalents of Apalone, Chelydra

  • Chelodina rugosa lays eggs underwater


Modern reptile taxa

Undiscussed Families

  • Pelomedusidae

    • 2 Genera + 18 Species, Africa

    • Similar to Kinosternidae

  • Podocnemidae

    • Flat Shells and Active Swimmers

    • 3 Genera + 8 Species

  • Bataguridae

    • 23 Genera, 65 Species

    • Mostly Old World, One in Central America

    • Ecological Equivalents of Emyidae

  • Dermatemydidae--1 Species in S Mexico

  • Carettochelyidae-- 1 Species in New Guinea


Modern reptile taxa

LEPIDOSAURIA

I. Rynchocephalia--Sphenodon--Tuatara

1. Separated by

a. Heterodont dentition

b. Teeth on palentine bone

c. Externally resemble iguanas

2. 2 Species

3. Restricted to New Zealand

4. Breeding program at Saint Louis Zoo


Modern reptile taxa

LEPIDOSAURIA

  • II. Squamata—Snakes, Lizards, Amphisbeanians

  • 1. Highly Kinetic Skulls (Parts Move)

  • 2. Hemipenes

  • Shed Skin All at Once

  • Dominant Desert Life Form

  • Dominant Fossorial Vertebrate

  • Limb Reduction is Common

    • Snakes

    • Lizards

    • Amphisbeanians


Modern reptile taxa

MOST RECENT PHYLOGENETIC HYPOTHESIS

Skinks

Geckos + Amphisbaenia

Snakes

Tuatara

Iguana


Modern reptile taxa

SCINCIDAE: Skinks

  • 115 Genera + 1260 Species

  • Nearly Cosmopolitan

  • Dermal Bones--Amour Plate

  • Many Are Terrestrial Insectivores

    • Some Similar to Snakes

    • Most are Robust Limbed

    • Mostly Diurnal

  • 2 Eumeces (fasciatus and laticeps)

  • Adult vs Juvenile Color

  • Tail Autonomy


Modern reptile taxa

IGUANIDAE: Iguanas

  • 8 Genera + 34 Species

  • Several Families Broken Out

    • Crotophytidae--Collard Lizards

    • Phrynosomatidae--Spiny Lizards

      • Sceloporus, Uta, Phrynostoma

      • Desert NA Lizards

    • Polychrotidae

      • American Chamelions--Anolis

  • The generalized Moderate-sized Lizard


Modern reptile taxa

GEKKONIDAE: Geckos

  • 97 Genera +1050 Species

  • Gondewanna Land + Nearby parts of Asia+ North America

  • Most Lizards in the Tropics

  • Mostly Arboreal + Saxicolous Insectivores

  • Unique Toe Pads--Can Climb Glass

  • Popular in Pet and Zoo Trades

  • Commonly Introduced to NA


Modern reptile taxa

TEIIDAE: Racerunners

  • 9 Genera + 125 Species

  • N+S America

  • Introduced in Spain

  • Active Diurnal Predators

  • Many are Parthenogenic

    • Asexual Reproduction

    • Females Mate with Outside Male

    • Genes From Sperm Not Incorporated

    • Speciation by Hybridization

    • Cnemidophorus


Modern reptile taxa

ANGUIDAE: Glass Lizards

  • 13 Genera + 110 Species

  • NA, SA, Eurasia, Africa

  • Readily Autotomize Tail

  • Limb Reduction is Common

  • Widespread, but Rare in NA

  • Ophisaurus


Modern reptile taxa

HELODERMATIDAE: Venomous Lizards

  • 1 Genus + 2 Species

  • SW USA to Guatemala

  • Venomous Saliva

  • Must Chew to Envenomate

  • Mexican Beaded Lizard

  • Gila Monster

  • Popular in Pet and Zoo Trades

  • Both Endangered by Over collection

  • Eat Mostly Vertebrates


Modern reptile taxa

CHAMAELEONIDAE: Chameleons

  • 6 Genera + 130 Species

  • Mostly Madagascar, Africa, Mideast, India, Sri Lanka

  • Introduced in Spain

  • Mostly Arboreal Insectivores

    • Pincher-like Hands (Zygodactylus--fused fingers)

    • Long Tails

    • Independent Moving Eyes

    • Long, Long Tongues

  • Some Ground-dwelling Forms (Pigmy)

  • Popular in Pet and Zoo Trades


Modern reptile taxa

Undiscussed Families

  • Agamidae

    • 45 Genera + 380+ Species, Africa, S Asia, Australia

  • Dibamidae--Small Burrowing Lizards, Reduced Limbs

    • 2 Genera + 10 Species

  • Gynophthalmidae

    • 35 Genera, 150+ Species, South America

  • Lacertidae--1 Species in S Mexico

    • 25 Genera 250 Species, Mostly African

  • Xantusiidae-- 3 Genera + 18 Species, Central America

  • Cordylidae--4 Genera, 40 Species--Africa

  • Xenosauridae--1 Genus, 6 Species

  • Shinisauridae--Monotypic

  • Varanidae--1 Genus, 40 Species

  • Lanthanotidae--Monotypic


Modern reptile taxa

AMPHISBAENIA

  • Amphisbaenidae--

    • 19 Genera + 135 Species

    • West Indies, SA, Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Rhineuridae--Rhineura floridana

  • Trogonophidae

    • 4 Genera + 6 Species

    • North Africa and Middle East

  • Bipedidae

    • 1 Genus + 3 Species, Baja California

  • Unusual Snake-Like Lizards

    • All but Bipes are legless

    • Elongate

    • Multiple Annulations

    • Right Lung Reduced

    • Skin Moves Independent of Trunk

    • Tails Do Not Regenerate


Modern reptile taxa

Skinks

Geckos + Amphisbaenia

Snakes

Tuatara

Iguana

Remember Snakes Are Just Lizards

  • No Legs (almost)

  • Long Vertebral Columns (120+ Before Tail)

  • No Eye Lids

  • Focus By Moving Lens In and Out

  • Reduced Left. Lung

  • No External Ears

  • Continued Skull Reduction

  • Probably Evolved From Burrower

  • Heat Sensing Pits Common

  • 2500 Species


Modern reptile taxa

COLUBRIDAE: Normal Snakes

  • 320 Genera + 1800+ Species

  • Cosmopolitan

  • Trashcan Taxon

  • Many Other Families Are Being Split Off

  • Most Common Snakes

  • Sensu strictu

  • 150 Genera, 700 Species

  • Cosmopolitan

    • Coluber

    • Masticophis

    • Tantilla

    • Elaphe

    • Lampropeltis

    • Opheodrys

    • Pituphis

  • Still a Trashcan


Modern reptile taxa

NATRICIDAE: Water Snakes

  • 40 Genera + 210 Species

  • Holoarctic, Africa, Australia, India

  • Mostly Aquatic or Semiaquatic

    • Natrix

    • Nerodia

    • Thamnophis

    • Storeria

    • Regina

    • Virginia

  • NA Versions are Temperamental + Viviparous

  • Many Actually Do Well With Settlement

  • Some Eurasian Forms Are Truly Terrestrial


Modern reptile taxa

XENODONTIDAE: Rear-Fanged Snakes

  • 65 Genera + 350 Species

  • Mostly South America

  • North American Forms Are a Problem

  • Diadophis

    • Ring-necked Snakes

    • Extirpated in Indianapolis

  • Masticophis

    • Worm Snakes

  • Heterodon

    • Specialized Toad Eaters

    • Upturned Snout Scale

    • Rear Fanged

    • Defense Displays


Modern reptile taxa

LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE: Blind Snakes

  • 2 Genera + 90 Species

  • Africa, Mideast, SA, SW USA

  • Small Burrowing Snakes

  • Some Populations in Barn Owl Nests

  • Mostly Myrmecophagus

  • Leptotyphlops dulcis and humilis Have Broad Diets


Modern reptile taxa

VIPERIDAE: Vipers

  • 20-27 Genera + 228 Species

  • N+SA, Africa, Eurasia

  • US Species are in Crotalinae (Pit Vipers)

  • Mostly Ambush Predators

    • Rattlesnakes

    • Cottonmouths

    • Copperheads

    • Old-World Vipers

  • Most Bites Are to Academics + Amateurs

  • Venom is Mostly Hemolytic and Cytolytic

  • Causes Massive Tissue Damage

  • Most NA Species Are Not Fatal


Modern reptile taxa

ELAPIDAE: Cobra and Kin

  • 62 Genera + 300 Species

  • Most of World Except Upper Temperate Zones

  • Mostly Active Predators

    • Cobras

    • Coral Snakes

    • Sea Snakes

    • Most Australian Snakes

    • Brown Snake a Major Pest

  • Venoms Tend to be Neurotoxic

  • Frequently Available in Pet Trades


Modern reptile taxa

BOIDAE: Boas, Pythons, and Kin

  • 20 Genera + 74 Species

  • All Tropical and Subtropical Regions

  • Formerly in Several Families

  • Wide Variety of Sizes

    • Eunectes murimus = 9m

    • Python reticulus = 9m

    • Tree Boas < 1m

  • Many are Arboreal

  • Many Ground-Based Predators

  • Popular in Pet and Zoo Trades

  • Leads to Frequent Introductions


Modern reptile taxa

Undiscussed Families

  • Anomalepididae

    • 4 Genera + 15 Species, SA; small insectivorous species

  • Typhlopidae

    • 6 Genera + 200 Species, Gondwanal, Similar to Above

  • Anomochilidae: 1 Genus, 2 Species--Malaysia

  • Aniliidae: 1 Species in Amazonia

  • Uropeltidae: Genera 55 Species; India SE Asia

  • Xenopeltidae:2 Species, India

  • Loxocemidae: 1 Species Central America

  • Xenophidiidae: 1 Genus, 2 Species; Malaysia

  • Tropidophiidae: 2 Genera, 31 Species; Central + SA

  • Bolyeridae--1 Genus, 2 Species 1 Island in Indiana Ocean

  • Arcochordidae--h1 Genus + 3 Species Australasia

  • Aractaspididae: 1 Genus + 18 Species Africa and Mideast


Modern reptile taxa

Crocodilians

1. Morphology

a. 2° return to sprawling form

b. Large + Elongate

c. Specialized for Aquatic Life

d. Despite rarity remain commercially important

2. Primarily Tropical and Subtropical

3. Extensive care of young

4. Very extensive radiation in Triassic

a. Dinosaur Origins/Competition

b. Only surviving Archosaurs

c. Many Lifestyles

5. 22 species world-wide


Modern reptile taxa

ALLIGATORIDAE: Alligators

  • 3 Genera + 8 Species

  • NA and China

  • Lower Teeth are Not Visible

  • Alligator mississippiensis

  • Common in SE US

    • Once Endangered

    • Now a Pest

    • Important Leather Source

    • Important Meat Source

  • Caimans--Common Pets

  • Dumped Pets Show Up Everywhere


Modern reptile taxa

CROCODYLIDAE: Chameleons

  • 2 Genera + 13 Species

  • Caribbean, Central + SA, Africa, India, Asia, Australia

  • Reputation for Man-Eating

  • Deserved by Nile and Saltwater Crocs


Modern reptile taxa

GAVIALIDAE: Gharrials

  • 2 Monotypic Genera

  • India to New Guinea

  • Ichthyfagous

  • Feeding Style


Modern reptile taxa

MOST RECENT PHYLOGENETIC HYPOTHESIS

Gavialidae

Crocodylidae

Alligatoridae

Morphology Suggests A Close Relationship Between Crocs and

Gators? How is This possible?


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