Minerals
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Minerals. Essential Points. Chemical elements form in stars Atoms bond by sharing electrons Minerals are classified by their chemistry Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure Silicates are the most important mineral group

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Essential points l.jpg
Essential Points

  • Chemical elements form in stars

  • Atoms bond by sharing electrons

  • Minerals are classified by their chemistry

  • Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

  • Silicates are the most important mineral group

  • Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry


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Composition of the Sun

1. Chemical elements form in stars


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What are Planets Made of?

  • Same material as Sun

  • Minus the elements that remain mostly in gases

  • We find this pattern in a certain class of meteorites

1. Chemical elements form in stars


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Chondrites

1. Chemical elements form in stars


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The Earth’s Crust looks Very Different

1. Chemical elements form in stars


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Composition of the Crust

1. Chemical elements form in stars


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Minerals are the Chemicals that make up the Earth

  • Naturally Occurring

  • Inorganic

  • Chemical Compounds

  • About 5000 Known

  • 200 Common

  • 20 Rock-Forming


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Atomic Bonding

1. Atoms Gain or Lose Electrons

2. Electrical Neutrality

  • (+) and (-) Cancel Out

    3. Bonding (Satisfy 1 & 2)

  • Ionic (NaCl)

  • Covalent (O2)

  • Metallic (Cu, Al, Fe)

  • Hydrogen (in water)

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons


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Ionic and Covalent Bonding

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons


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Metallic Bonding

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons


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Hydrogen Bonding

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons


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Summary of Bonding

  • Ionic bonding holds rocks and minerals together

  • Covalent bonding holds people and other organisms together

  • Metallic bonding holds civilization together

  • Hydrogen bonding gives water its heat-retaining and solvent properties

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons


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4. Lattices

  • Atoms in crystals form a repeating pattern called a Lattice

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons


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5. Complex Ions

  • Many minerals contain groups of atoms that behave as single units

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons


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Identifying Minerals

  • Color: very variable, complex causes

  • Hardness: strength of atomic bonds

  • Density: mass and spacing of atoms

  • Luster: how electrons interact with light

  • Cleavage: weak atomic planes

  • Crystal Form: extremely useful but not for beginners

  • Other properties distinctive at times

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure


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Hardness

  • Resistance to Scratching

  • Directly related to relative strength of atomic bonds

  • Scratch Test (Mohs)

  • Talc

  • Gypsum

  • Calcite

  • Fluorite

  • Apatite

  • Feldspar

  • Quartz

  • Topaz

  • Corundum

  • Diamond


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Density

  • Directly related to masses of component atoms and their spacing

  • Usually very consistent

Ice: 0.92Water: 1.00Halite: 2.18Quartz: 2.65Pyrite, Hematite, Magnetite: 5.0Galena: 7.5

Gold: 19.3Platinum: 21.4Iridium: 22.4 (densest material on Earth)

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure


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MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

Elements

Metallic:Au, Ag, Cu

  • Not Al, Pb, Zn, Fe, etc.

    Nonmetallic: C - Diamond, Graphite

  • Sulfur

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure



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Sulfides: Dense, Usually MetallicMany Major Ores

  • Major Cause of Acid Rain

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure


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Carbonates

  • Principal Components of limestone and dolostone

  • Storehouse for CO2

  • Major regulator of climate

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure


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Oxide: Hematite

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure


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MOST IMPORTANT MINERAL SUITE: The Silicate Minerals

  • Si + O = 75% of Crust

  • Silicates make up 95% + of all Rocks

  • SiO4: -4 charge

  • Link Corner-To-Corner by Sharing Oxygen atoms

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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Silicate Structures

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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Chain Silicates

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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Asbestos

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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Sheet Silicates

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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One Type of Asbestos

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group



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Tectosilicates - Three-Dimensional Networks

  • Quartz Feldspars

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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Quartz

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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Minerals in Granite

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group


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Making Sense of Crystals

6. Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry


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The problem in Crystallography is to reason from the outward shape to the unit cell

6. Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry


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Stacking Cubes shape to the unit cell

6. Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry


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Some shapes that result from stacking cubes shape to the unit cell

6. Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry



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The Crystal Classes symmetry

6. Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry


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Essential Points symmetry

  • Chemical elements form in stars

  • Atoms bond by sharing electrons

  • Minerals are classified by their chemistry

  • Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

  • Silicates are the most important mineral group

  • Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry


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