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MICROBIOLOGY

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MICROBIOLOGY. Introduction & Classification. Topics. Classification Methods of Microbiology Nutrition & Growth Microbial Structure Metabolism Host parasite relationships Control of Growth. Types of Microorganisms. Bacteria Gram positive & gram negative Viruses RNA & DNA Fungi

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microbiology

MICROBIOLOGY

Introduction & Classification

topics
Topics
  • Classification
  • Methods of Microbiology
  • Nutrition & Growth
  • Microbial Structure
  • Metabolism
  • Host parasite relationships
  • Control of Growth
types of microorganisms
Types of Microorganisms
  • Bacteria
    • Gram positive & gram negative
  • Viruses
    • RNA & DNA
  • Fungi
    • Yeasts & molds
  • Protozoa
history
History
  • Robert Hooke
    • Described units in cork as cells

Anton van Leeuwenhoek-1667

    • Made lenses or simple microscopes
spontaneous generation
Spontaneous Generation
  • Abiogenesis-living matter arising from nonliving matter
  • Redi –maggots & meat
  • Pasteur et al disproved abiogenesis
pasteur
Pasteur
  • Fermentation
    • Yeast ferment grape juice –alcohol
    • Bacteria ferment grape juice-acids
  • Pasteurization
germ theory of disease
Germ Theory of Disease
  • Koch
    • Koch’s postulates
    • Developed pure culture techniques
    • Discovered TB agent
immunology chemotherapy
Immunology/Chemotherapy
  • Jenner and smallpox vaccine
    • Used cowpox virus
antiseptics
Antiseptics
  • Semmelweis
  • Lister
fleming
Fleming
  • Discovered penicillin
taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • System of cataloging organisms
    • Identification: characterization of organisms
    • Classification: arrangement of organisms into similar groups
    • Nomenclature: assign names
binominal nomenclature
Binominal Nomenclature
  • Genus-capitalized ; collection of species
  • Microbes – species can be subdivided into strains
  • Strains have small genetic differences
rules
Rules
  • Both genus & species underlined or italicized
  • Strain-subdivision of species
    • ID by name, number or letter
    • Example- Escherichia coli- E. coli K12
classification
Classification
  • Wittaker-5 kingdoms
    • Plants
    • Animals
    • Fungi
    • Protista
    • Monera or Prokaryote
domains
Domains
  • Carl Woese-1980s
  • Based upon modern techniques
    • Sequence of rRNA in ribosomes
  • Three cell types based upon ribosomes
three domains
Three Domains
  • Domains above kingdom level
  • Bacteria or Eubacteriae
    • Prokaryotes with peptidoglycan in cell wall
    • Divide by binary fission
    • Motile by flagella or cilia
    • Sensitive to antibiotics
archaea
Archaea
  • Ancient prokaryotes
    • Cell wall present, not peptidoglycan
    • Live in extreme environments
    • Have unusual metabolic processes
    • Not sensitive to antibiotics
archaea18
Archaea
  • Methanogens -strict anaerobes
    • Produce methane from CO2 + H2
    • Live in anaerobic mud lakes
    • Intestine of cows
archaea19
Archaea
  • Halophiles
    • Require high concentration of salt
      • Maintain cell wall
    • Spoilage of food-salted fish
    • Salt lakes
archaea20
Archaea
  • Thermophiles
    • Live in hot sulfurous waters or acidic water
    • Nucleic acids/proteins do not function at low temperatures
    • Volcanic vents in ocean
eukarya
Eukarya
  • All eukaryotes
  • Cell wall varies in composition
  • Not sensitive to antibiotics
  • Fungi-yeasts and molds
  • Protists-slime molds, protozoa, & algae
  • Plants & animals
endosymbiotic theory
Endosymbiotic Theory
  • Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes
  • Supported by similarities between prokaryotes & organelles in eukaryotes
  • Mitochondria & chloroplasts same size as prokaryote cell
    • Contain DNA, 70S ribosomes
  • Endosymbiont-organism that lives within another
support for theory
Support for Theory
          • Prokary Eukary Mitoch & Chloro
  • DNA circular linear circular
  • Histones No Yes No
  • Ribosomes 70S 80S 70S
  • Growth binary mitosis binary
  • Cyanophora
viruses
Viruses
  • Obligate intracellular parasites
  • Not cells so non living agent
  • No ribosomes
  • Classification is different
viroids prions
Viroids & Prions
  • Viroids
    • Single short piece of RNA
    • Cause disease in plants
    • ? In humans
  • Prions
    • Protein
    • Cause neurodegenerate diseases
    • Humans & animals
    • CJD & mad cow
new challenges
New Challenges
  • Antibiotic resistance
    • MRSA, VRE & ESBL
  • Emerging diseases
    • SARS & Avian Influenza
  • Bioterrorism
    • Anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism
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