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HINARI/Basic Internet Concepts (module 1.1) MODULE 1.1 Basic Internet Concepts Instructions - This part of the: course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Basic Internet Concepts.

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MODULE 1.1 Basic Internet Concepts

Instructions - This part of the:

  • course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Basic Internet Concepts.

  • module is off-line and is intended as an information resource for reference use.


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Topics

  • Background – HINARI, AGORA, OARE

  • Basic Internet Concepts

  • Structure of the Internet

  • Common Internet Protocols

  • Technical Requirements for HINARI


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Objectives of HINARI-AGORA-OARE

  • To connect developing world researchers with the international scientific community

  • To reduce the ‘publishing gap’ and improve the quality of locally produced journals

  • Ultimately – improve health, food security and environment in relation to MDG of 2015


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HINARI (Health Internetwork Access to Research Initiative)

  • Online portal to publishers

  • Coordinated by WHO/Yale University, USA

  • Free/Low cost to 113 countries

  • Over 5000 journals / 120 publishers

  • Medicine and health

  • 2903 institutions

  • Data: 06 2008


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AGORA(Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture)

  • Online portal to publishers

  • Coordinated by FAO/Cornell University, USA

  • Free/Low cost to 113 countries

  • 913 journals / 40 publishers

  • Agriculture and related sciences

  • 1042 institutions

  • Data: 06 2008


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OARE (Online Access to Research in the Environment)

  • Online portal to access environmental information

  • Coordinated by UNEP/Yale University

  • Free/Low cost to 108 countries

  • Over 1300 journals / 340 publishers and scholarly societies

  • Environment and related sciences

  • 900 institutions

  • Data: 06 2008


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HINARI-AGORA-OARE Eligibility

  • Free (Band 1): 72 countries with GNI per capita of <$1250

  • $1000/yr (Band 2): 36 Countries/territories with GNI per capita of $1250-3500

  • Eligibility is based on GNI per capita figures as reported by the World Bank


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Primary Target Audiences

  • Research and teaching universities

  • National research organizations, government offices and ministries

  • Publicly funded and not-for-profit agencies


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What is the Internet?

  • Publicly accessible network of interconnected computers which communicate via software protocol standards

  • Easily accessed (via modem and phone line, ISDN, direct cable landline, satellite)

  • Expanding global infrastructure; is pan-national (no central control)

  • Regarding information delivery, the most significant change since the development of the printing press in the 15th century!


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Internet Growth

  • Exponential growth for the last few years

  • The Web Server market has grown from 120,000 units in 1995 to 45 million in 2003

  • In 1993, 90,000 people used the Internet; in 2002, 600 million people used the Internet; in 2007, over 1 billion people will use the Internet

  • Hardware costs are decreasing year on year

  • Over the next 10 years electronic commerce will boom, reaching $100s of billions by the year 2010



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Server/Client Interface

SERVERS

Hardware + Software

Software

Protocols

CLIENTS

Hardware + Software


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Internet Architecture

Give me file x

Computer on the Internet holding

information - remote “server”

Here it is

Desktop computer - “client”


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Internet Services

  • The World-Wide Web (Multimedia Information Services)

  • Search tools (via the World-Wide Web)

  • Communication (E-mail)

  • Retrieval/information transfer (FTP)


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The World-Wide Web

  • WWW, web, W3, World-Wide Web

  • Often what people mean by the Internet

  • Based on hypertext - the ability to link text and documents dynamically and interactively

  • Uses hypertext markup language - HTML

  • The WWW is a global standard

  • Can use text, graphics, sound and video

  • Anyone can link to and make use of the web


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Delivery: Dial Up Connection

Speed of connection

Quality of telephone line

modem speed: usually 56 kilobytes per second

ISP services

DIAL-UP CONNECTION

International Gateway Link

Phone Line

Internet

ISP Server

Client Computer

With Modem

  • Speed of line

  • Quality of line


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Delivery: Full-time Connection

Speed of connection

LAN Server speed,

Bandwidth (64k,128k, 256k, 1Mb)

Mode of link (radio, leased line, satellite)

FULL – TIME CONNECTION

Leased Line

Permanent Connection

Internet

LAN Server

  • Speed of line

  • Quality of line

Local Area

Network


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Access Speed Issues

Cables vary in speed and amount of information they can carry

Sometimes cables are slow in carrying information or lose the signal, especially if:

information must cross long distances

too much traffic on the cable

cable capacity, or bandwidth, is low


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Web Browser

  • Browser is the software that is used to view the Web

  • Standard browser features

    • scrolling, back, forward, stop, home, refresh

  • Navigation - in built features

    • back, forward, home, go to, yes, no

  • Search on a single web page

  • Multiple Web browser windows


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Browser Customization

  • Toolbar options

  • Link to a specific homepage

  • Using the right click mouse button

  • Using favorites or bookmarks

    • Adding

    • Organizing

    • Editing


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Internet Requirements for HINARI

  • 56 kbps modem, local area network (LAN), or cable connection required.

  • A hard-wired full-time Internet connection (T1 or better) enables the fastest downloads.

  • Satellite or network connections, though slower, are also adequate.

  • Web Browser - Internet Explorer version 4.0 or higher OR Netscape version 6 or higher OR Mozilla Firefox 1.0 or higher


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Adobe Acrobat for PDFs

  • You will need an Adobe Acrobat Reader to view journal articles in PDF (Portable Document Format).

  • Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded for FREE from the Adobe web site:

    http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html


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This page contains the link to download option for Adobe Reader version 8.1.2

This is viewed using the Mozilla Firefox web browser.


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The Internet Address or URL Reader version 8.1.2

This page is being viewed in the Internet Explorer Browser. Browsers allow computers to read Hyper Text Mark-up Language OR HTML.

The Address or URL is typed in here.


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Entering a URL address in the address box Reader version 8.1.2

After entering a URL address in the address box click Go or hit the RETURN key. In this example we have entered http://www.who.int for the WHO website


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Hypertext links Reader version 8.1.2

Links to other pages are usually underlined or in another colour of text.


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Forward and back navigation buttons Reader version 8.1.2

The arrow buttons on the tool bar allow users to move Back and Forward to pages within the website.


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Home page button Reader version 8.1.2

The House icon on the tool bar will take you back to the browser’s default Home Page.


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This is the end of Module 1 Reader version 8.1.2

This is the end of Module 1.1

There is a Work Book to accompany this part of the module. The workbook will take you through a live session covering the topics included in this demonstration with working examples.

Updated 02 2008


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