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Language and the Reading Puzzle. Virginia A. Mann Dept. Of Cognitive Sciences University of California, Irvine [email protected] brainconnection.com. What makes them err? in decoding in comprehension What can be done?. Why are poor readers, poor readers ?. ERRORS IN WRITING.

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Language and the reading puzzle l.jpg

Language and the Reading Puzzle

Virginia A. Mann

Dept. Of Cognitive Sciences

University of California, Irvine

[email protected]

brainconnection.com


What makes them err in decoding in comprehension what can be done l.jpg

What makes them err?

in decoding

in comprehension

What can be done?

Why are poor readers, poor readers?


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ERRORS

IN

WRITING

Reversals?

Spelling errors?

Missing words?


Errors in reading l.jpg
ERRORS IN READING:

POOR DECODING:

Recovering the spoken words that written words ‘stand for’

Basics: vocabulary

phoneme awareness

morpheme awareness

A limit on fluency


Decoding problems l.jpg
Decoding Problems

Poor

readers

Average

readers

Superior

readers


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ERRORS IN READING

WORKING MEMORY

Temporarily retaining an ordered series of words, syllables, etc.

Basics:in both reading and listening

a bottleneck on comprehension


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Working Memory Errors

Smith, Mann and Shankweiler 1986


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Language and the Reading Puzzle

Vocabulary

& Early

Language

Vocabulary

& Early

Language

Working memory


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Vocabulary & Early Language

Vocabulary

& Early

Language


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Written Language Transcribes Spoken Language

Readers start as

speakers and hearers

Reading suffers

if spoken language is weak

Weak language can have both

genetic and environmental origins


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Language, SES and Reading

Cumulative Effects of Language Experience

Effects of Low Language Development on Reading

45 Million Words

High SES

High Oral Language in Kindergarten

5.2 years difference

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Reading Age Level

26 Million Words

Middle SES

Estimated Cumulative Words

(In Millions)

Low Oral Language in Kindergarten

13 Million Words

Low SES

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chronological Age

12 24 36 48

Age of Child (In Months)

  • SOURCE: Loban (1967); Hirsch (1996)

  • SOURCE: Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children by Betty Hart & Todd R. Risley. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (1995)


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An Environment of Poor Reading

The Real OC:

Santa Ana, CA

Highest in:

High school dropout

Household Density

Poverty

Speakers of Spanish



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Consequences of low education:

Less income:37 cents per dollar

A shorter life:dying 9 years earlier

1% decrease in the dropout rate:

100,000 fewer crimes

400 fewer murders

$1.4 million annual savings

LA Times 1/29/06


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What can be Done?

Improve the schools?

Work before school starts?

help parents fulfill their role

as their children’s first teachers

Home-based Activities

Building Language Acquisition


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2ways to optimize the home environment

1. Coach parents to

Be more responsive, positive and engaged

exercise children’s spoken language skills

Use complex language

Ask and listen

2. Coach parents to

enrich the home literacy environment

use dialogic reading


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HABLA: ‘Speak!’ for School success

A Spanish language program:

two years of home visits (92 visits)

Increases verbal interaction between parents and 2-4 yr old children

Easily-learned, developmentally appropriate methods of play

Books and toys that stay in the home

(Levenstein et al, 2002)


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HABLA as Cost Effective:

1 year of HABLA: $1500

1 year of preschool: $6000

An extra year of school: $6000

Each year of Special Education: $12,000

Cumulative loss of social capital: PRICELESS




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Positive Gains in Early Language:

Without HABLA

Mann et al, 2007


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Mathematics in Preschool:

HABLA

English

Spanish


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Letters in Preschool

HABLA

English

Spanish


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A high tech approach to both genetic and environmentally based problems:

FastForWordproducts

Neuroscience

F.A.S.T. Power learning formula:

Frequency & intensity, Adaptivity,

Simultaneous development, Timely motivation

Cognitive Science

A scope and sequence of materials that build foundational cognitive and language skills progressively


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Fast ForWord based problems:Reading

  • Builds vocabulary

  • builds connections between written and spoken words

  • Builds flexibility

  • Builds fluency through repeated reading

A series of products

that targets all levels

of reading

from decoding

to comprehension


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Phoneme Awareness: based problems:The First Key to the Alphabet


Why phoneme awareness matters decoding words l.jpg
Why Phoneme Awareness Matters? Decoding Words based problems:

Poor

readers

Average

readers

Superior

readers


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The Alphabetic code: based problems:Letters stand for phonemes

But what are phonemes?


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The units of language based problems:

1 sentence

6 words

7 syllables

15 phonemes

…12-13 in the South…

20 letters

“Are you here as a teacher?”


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  • To understand the ABC’s

    • Children must be aware of phonemes

    • Seeing how c-a-t spells ‘cat’ takes

    • a kind of mental surgery


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    Activities that Require based problems:Phoneme Awareness:

    Judgment:

    What has a different first sound?

    bag baby cat ball

    Manipulation:

    Say ‘brake’ without the first sound

    rake


    The antecedents of phoneme awareness l.jpg
    The Antecedents of based problems:Phoneme Awareness?

    Production and Perception of Speech

    Exposure to literacy activities (verse and word play, the ABC’s, shared reading)

    Mann and Foy, 2001-2007


    Activities that promote phomeme awareness l.jpg
    Activities that promote phomeme awareness based problems:

    Learning the ABC’s

    especially letter sounds

    Matching or Sorting words

    by phonemes

    Manipulating phonemes

    Blending


    Phoneme awareness predicts early reading success l.jpg
    Phoneme Awareness Predicts Early Reading Success based problems:

    Highlyaware

    Avg.

    Least aware

    Phoneme awareness

    in October

    Reading Ability 6 months later

    Shah and Mann, 2000


    Slide38 l.jpg

    A Cautionary Note based problems:

    Intervention and training must be:

    lengthy, explicit and intensive


    Slide39 l.jpg

    How based problems:FastForWord Reading

    Builds Phoneme Awareness:

    Some Examples


    Morpheme awareness second key to the english alphabet l.jpg
    Morpheme Awareness: based problems:Second Key to the English Alphabet


    Morphemes in all language vocabulary builders l.jpg
    Morphemes in all language: based problems:Vocabulary builders


    Morphemes and english 1 spelling and meaning l.jpg
    Morphemes and English: based problems:1) Spelling and Meaning

    to, too, or two?

    there, their or they’re?

    it’s or its?


    From peter bryant s rogue apostrophe gallery l.jpg
    From Peter Bryant’s based problems:“Rogue Apostrophe Gallery”


    Morphemes and english 2 suffixes and decoding l.jpg
    Morphemes and English: based problems:2) Suffixes and Decoding

    HEAL HEALTH

    SIGN SIGNIFY

    ELECTRIC ELECTRICITY


    Morphemes aid comprehension yet complicate decoding l.jpg
    Morphemes aid comprehension yet complicate decoding based problems:

    REACT

    REDO

    REPLAY

    REPAY

    REACH

    REAL

    REIGN

    REALM


    Measuring morpheme awareness l.jpg
    Measuring Morpheme Awareness based problems:

    The Cloze Task:

    She is very _______

    active activate activation activize

    lorialize lorial lorify lorialism


    Morphemes early reading ability l.jpg
    Morphemes: Early Reading Ability based problems:

    Singson, Mahony & Mann, 2000


    Morphemes the bigger picture l.jpg
    Morphemes:The Bigger Picture based problems:

    Poor 3rd 4th 5th 6th Avg.

    Adult grade Adult


    How fastforword reading targets morpheme skills some examples l.jpg
    How based problems:FastForWordReadingtargets Morpheme Skills:Some Examples


    The role of working memory putting it all together l.jpg
    The Role of Working Memory: based problems:Putting it all together

    Working memory


    Slide57 l.jpg

    Speakers and readers need working memory: based problems:

    To understand sentences with

    Nouns separated from their verbs

    Embedded clauses

    pronouns separated from antecedents

    To unify paragraphs


    Slide58 l.jpg

    SENTENCE COMPREHENSION based problems:


    Consequences in the classroom l.jpg
    Consequences in the classroom? based problems:

    Problems with comprehension:

    following directions

    multiple choice tests

    paragraphs

    pronouns

    embedded clauses

    For written material this is exaggerated by slow labored decoding


    Slide60 l.jpg

    How based problems:FastForWord Reading

    Builds Working Memory:

    Some Examples


    Early language vocabulary phonemes morphemes and working memory matter in l.jpg
    Early language, Vocabulary, Phonemes, Morphemes based problems: and Working Memory matter in:

    All language use

    The alphabet and decoding

    Comprehension

    Reading intervention


    Slide65 l.jpg

    Reading intervention? based problems:

    Language Awareness:

    Phonemes and Morphemes

    Literacy

    Experiences

    Verse, ABC’s

    Reading

    Language

    Skills:

    Working Memory

    Vocabulary


    Solutions to the problem l.jpg
    Solutions to the Problem: based problems:

    Coach parents

    Use science and technology to build products for the schools


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    A CIRCUIT FOR SUCCESS based problems:

    SCHOOLS

    Science &

    Technology

    FAMILIES


    2007 research l.jpg
    2007 Research based problems:

    Bill Jenkins, Ph.D.

    Professor Michael Merzenich, Ph.D.

    Steve Miller, Ph.D.

    Professor

    Paula Tallal, Ph.D.

    Melissa Agocs

    Logan De Ley, M.S.

    Rebecca Buffum, M.S.

    Barbara Calhoun, Ph.D.

    Stefanie Lim

    Andrew Ostarello, M.S.

    Gretchen Donehower, Ph.D.

    UC - Berkeley

    Marty Burns, Ph.D.

    Virginia Mann, Ph.D.

    UC - Irvine


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