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Improving Human-Robot Interaction Jill Drury, The MITRE Corporation Collaborators: Holly Yanco, UMass Lowell Jean Scholtz, NIST Mike Baker, Bob Casey, Dan Hestand, Brenden Keyes, Phil Thoren (UML) Methodology for Evaluating HRI Two approaches: field and laboratory

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Improving human robot interaction jill drury the mitre corporation l.jpg

Improving Human-Robot InteractionJill Drury, The MITRE Corporation

Collaborators:

Holly Yanco, UMass Lowell

Jean Scholtz, NIST

Mike Baker, Bob Casey, Dan Hestand,

Brenden Keyes, Phil Thoren (UML)


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Methodology for Evaluating HRI

  • Two approaches: field and laboratory

  • Field work: so far, robotics competitions

    • See many different user interfaces but have no control over what operator does

    • Difficult to collect data

    • Can see what they did – but there isn’t time to determine why

    • Best used to get an idea of the difficulties in the real world

    • Can identify “critical events” but don’t know for certain whether operator was aware of them


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Methodology for Evaluating HRI

  • Laboratory studies

    • Take what we learned in the real world and isolate factors to determine effects

    • Repeatability is still difficult to achieve due to fragile nature of robots


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Analysis Frameworks

  • Taxonomy to define human/robot system

  • Detailed definition of human-robot interaction awareness

  • Coding scheme/metrics for analyzing data

  • Scholtz’ evaluation guidelines


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Taxonomy

  • Autonomy

  • Amount of intervention

  • Human-robot ratio

  • Level of shared interaction

  • Composition of robot teams

  • Available sensors

  • Sensor Fusion

  • Criticality

  • Time

  • Space


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Awareness as a concept from CSCW

  • CSCW software:

    • “...makes the user aware that he is part of a group, while most other software seeks to hide and protect users from each other” [Lynch et al. 1990]

  • HRI software:

    • Makes humans aware of robots’ status and activities via the interface


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What is “awareness”?

  • No standard definition in the CSCW field

    • We’ve seen at least 16 different definitions!

  • Are many different types of awareness, e.g.

    • Concept awareness

    • Conversational awareness

    • Group-structural awareness

    • Informal awareness

    • Peripheral awareness

  • Common thread: understanding that participants have of each other in a shared environment

  • Situation awareness

  • Social awareness

  • Task awareness

  • Workspace awareness


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But CSCW systems are different from robotic systems…

  • CSCW:

    • Multiple humans interacting via a CSCW system

  • Robotics:

    • Single or multiple humans interacting with a single or multiple robots

    • Non-symmetrical relationships between humans and robots; e.g., differences in

      • Free will

      • Cognition


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Tailoring an awareness definition for HRI: a base case

  • Given one human and one robot...

  • ... HRI awareness is the understanding that the human has of the

    • location,

    • activities,

    • status, and

    • surroundings of the robot; and

  • the knowledge that the robot has of

    • the human’s commands necessary to direct its activities and

    • the constraints under which it must operate


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An awareness framework: General case

  • Given n humans and m robots working together on a synchronous task, HRI awareness consists of five components:

    • Human-robot awareness

    • Human-human awareness

    • Robot-human awareness

    • Robot-robot awareness

    • Humans’ overall mission awareness


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General case: a detailed look

  • Given n humans and m robots working together on a synchronous task, HRI awareness consists of five components:

    • Human-robot: the understanding that the humans have of the locations, identities, activities, status and surroundings of the robots. Further, the understanding of the certainty with which humans know this information.

    • Human-human: the understanding that the humans have of the locations, identities and activities of their fellow human collaborators


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General case, concluded

  • Robot-human: the robots’ knowledge of the humans’ commands needed to direct activities and any human-delineated constraints that may require command noncompliance or a modified course of action

  • Robot-robot: the knowledge that the robots have of the commands given to them, if any, by other robots, the tactical plans of the other robots, and the robot-to-robot coordination necessary to dynamically reallocate tasks among robots if necessary.

  • Humans’ overall mission awareness: the humans’ understanding of the overall goals of the joint human-robot activities and the measurement of the moment-by-momentprogress obtained against the goals.


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Coding Scheme: Problems Relating to Critical Incidents

  • Critical incident: Robot has, or could, cause harm or damage

  • Types of problems:

    • Local navigation

    • Global navigation

    • Obstacle encounter

    • Vehicle state

    • Victim identification (specific to search and rescue)


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Some Metrics for HRI

  • Time spent navigating, on UI overhead and avoiding obstacles

  • Amount of space covered

  • Number of victims found

  • Critical incidents

    • Positive outcomes

    • Negative outcomes

  • Operator interventions

    • Amount of time robot needs help

    • Time to acquire situation awareness

    • Reason for intervention


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Scholtz’ Guidelines (tailored)

  • Is sufficient status and robot location information available so that the operator knows the robot is operating correctly and avoiding obstacles?

  • Is the information coming from the robots presented in a manner that minimizes operator memory load, including the amount of information fusion that needs to be performed in the operators’ heads?

  • Are the means of interaction provided by the interface efficient and effective for the human and the robot (e.g., are shortcuts provided for the human)?

  • Does the interface support the operator directing the actions of more than one robot simultaneously?

  • Will the interface design allow for adding more sensors and more autonomy?


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Design Guidelines

  • Enhance awareness

    • Provide a map of where the robot has been

    • Provide more spatial information about the robot in the environment to make the operators more award of their robot’s immediate surroundings

  • Lower cognitive load

    • Provide fused sensor information to avoid making the user fuse data mentally

    • Display important information near or fused with the video image


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Design Guidelines, concluded

  • Increase efficiency

    • Provide user interfaces that support multiple robots in a single window, if possible

    • In general, minimize the use of multiple windows and maximize use of the primary viewing area

  • Provide help in choosing robot modality

    • Give the operator assistance in determining the most appropriate level of robot autonomy at any given time


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Fusing Information

  • Victims can be missed in video images








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