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GIS as modeling tool Helena Mitasova Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, NCSU, Raleigh http://www.skagit.meas.ncsu.edu/~helena/.

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GIS as modeling tool

Helena Mitasova

Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, NCSU, Raleigh

http://www.skagit.meas.ncsu.edu/~helena/


US Dept. of Labor identified geotechnology as one of the three most important emerging and evolving fields, along with nanotechnology and biotechnology." Nature, vol. 427, Jan. 2004, p. 376.

New trends

* Revolution in mapping technologies (laser scanning, multispectral imagery...)

* Automated monitoring stations: meteorology, oceanography, surface water (Rivernet, USGS, DOT), groundwater, etc.

* On-line distribution of data, near real time data availability, WebGIS

* Multidimensional dynamic GIS: replacement of 2D static representation of landscape by a 3D dynamic representation;

H. Mitasova


GIS technology and landscape processes

Monitoring

modern mapping technologies – LIDAR, IFSARE,

multispectral imagery, RTK-GPS, automated sensors

Analysis and risk assessment

integration of data from multiple sources, spatial analysis, visualization : identifying the problem areas, trends, risks

Prediction of impacts

spatially distributed numerical modeling, simulations

Planning and decision support

information and tools for management of natural and socio-economic resources

H. Mitasova


Jockey s ridge state park
Jockey's Ridge State Park

Established in 1975 to save the dunes, it was believed to be stable.

It is now completely surrounded by development and it migrates

faster than expected, threatening nearby homes and roads

Challenge: keep the naturally migrating dune within the park

2003 view from NE

H. Mitasova


Jockey s ridge evolution
Jockey's Ridge evolution

1974 and 1995

photogrammetric data

courtesy Dr. Overton, NCSU

1999 ATM lidar:

USGS/NASA/NOAA

N

D

A

1974 (brown)

1995 (yellow)

migration rate: 3m/y

1995 (yellow)

1999 (red)

migration rate: 7m/y

H. Mitasova


Jockey s ridge 1998 doqq 1999 lidar 2002 rtk gps
Jockey’s Ridge: 1998 DOQQ, 1999 LIDAR, 2002 RTK-GPS

1. East ridge needs immediate attention as it is moving fast towards the road

2. The fences in Central section work as elevation there increases

3. Main ridge is rapidly flattening and moves fast SW

sand

pavement

vegetation

H. Mitasova


Jockey s ridge evolution natural man made
Jockey’s Ridge evolution: natural + man-made

Dune

rolled over

minigolf

N

C

2002

2003

2000

winter 2003

“Nature tries to shift OB but man keeps shoveling it back”

Cornelia Dean, NYT Sept. 22

H. Mitasova


Development of sw centennial campus
Development of SW Centennial Campus

Combining the GIS

and CAD data to

create digital models

of the current and

future landscapes

2001

1993

future

construction


Pre development 1993 overland flow and location of sediment control structures
Pre-development 1993 overland flow and location of sediment control structures

future school

location

constructed wetland

check dams

detention area

previously a NCSU farm


Overland flow and net erosion deposition
Overland flow and net erosion/deposition control structures

discharge m3/s

/m2s

0.7m3/s

0.01-6.0kg/ms

erosion=968kg/s

0.002m3/s

0.001kg/ms

erosion=87kg/s

erosion

deposition

main impact of disturbance is outside construction site: stream erosion within protective buffer


Overland flow and net erosion deposition1
Overland flow and net erosion/deposition control structures

impact of disturbance caused by concentrated

water flow that is not sufficiently reduced

by the buffer, maximum erosion rates are

within the protective buffer

Discharge m3/s

Extended, high infiltration

buffers can reduce the impact

/m2s

Erosion

deposition

Erosion 142kg/s

compared to 968kg/s


Tangible GIS control structures

MIT media Laboratory


Tangible GIS control structures

MIT media laboratory


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