Freshwater and marine ecosystems
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Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems Includes: lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands Freshwater contains little to no dissolved ______.

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Freshwater ecosystems l.jpg
Freshwater Ecosystems

  • Includes: lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands

  • Freshwater contains little to no dissolved ______.

  • The plant and animal life depends on the depth of the water, how fast the water moves, the amount of nutrients, sunlight, and oxygen available

salt


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Lakes and Ponds

  • In the shallow areas close to the shores, ________ and ________ are abundant.

  • This nutrient-rich area is known as the _________ zone.

  • Farther out from the shore, the open water that gets enough sunlight for photosynthesis is dominated by tiny plants and animals known as __________ and ___________.

plants

animals

littoral

zooplankton

phytoplankton


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Lakes and Ponds

  • Some bodies of fresh water have areas so deep that there is too little light for photosynthesis to occur.

  • Dead plants and animals drift down and are decomposed by _________.

  • Eventually the dead and decaying organisms reach the _______ zone, the bottom of a body of water, which is inhabited by decomposers, insect larvae, and clams.

bacteria

benthic


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Lakes and Ponds

  • A lake with a large amount of plant nutrients is known as a _________ lake.

  • The number of bacteria increases and uses all the available ________.

  • The ________ of the species declines.

  • Lakes usually become _________ over a long period of time , but the process can be accelerated by sewage, fertilizer and animal waste.

eutrophic

oxygen

diversity

eutrophic


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Wetlands

  • Wetlands are areas of land that are covered with ______ for at least part of the year.

  • The two main types of freshwater wetlands are _________ and _______.

  • ________ contain non-woody plants and ________ contain woody plants or shrubs.

water

marshes

swamps

Marshes

swamps




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Threats to Wetlands

  • The importance of wetlands as purifiers of wastewater and absorbers of other hazardous flood waters is now recognized.

  • Wetlands are also vitally important as habitats for wildlife.

  • The federal government and most states now prohibit destruction of certain wetlands.


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Rivers

  • Many rivers originate from _________ in mountains.

  • At its headwaters, a river is usually very _____ and highly ___________.

  • As it progresses, a river may broaden, become _______, lose ________, and flow more _________.

  • Its characteristics may change as the _____ and climate change through which it flows.

snowmelt

cold

oxygenated

warmer

oxygen

slowly

land



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Threats to Rivers

  • Industries use river water in the manufacturing processes and as a receptacle for waste.

  • These practices have polluted rivers with toxins, killing river organisms and making river fish inedible.

  • Pesticides and other poisons runoff into rivers and coat river beds with toxic sediments.

  • Dams alter river flow and may destroy fish habitats.


Marine ecosystems l.jpg
Marine Ecosystems

  • Includes: estuaries, coral reefs, oceans, and polar ecosystems

  • Marine ecosystems contain dissolved _____.

  • In oceans, lack of water is not a problem. Therefore, the types of organisms present are dependent upon __________, sunlight available, and ___________.

salt

temperature

nutrients


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Estuaries

  • An ecosystem where _____ _____ from rivers and streams mixes with _____ _____ from the ocean.

  • Estuaries contain plenty of light and nutrients which support large populations of plants and animals.

  • Plants and animals that live in estuaries are able to tolerate variations in ________ because the _____ content of the water varies as the fresh and salt water mix.

fresh

water

salt

water

salinity

salt


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Threats to Estuaries

  • Estuaries provide harbors, access to the ocean, and connections to rivers. As a result, many of the world’s largest cities are built on estuaries.

  • Because of this, many estuaries have become polluted.



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Coral Reef

  • Coral reefs are __________ islands in the sea that are built by coral animals called polyps.

  • Thousands of species of plants and animals live in the cracks and crevices of coral reefs, making coral reefs among the most ________ ecosystems on Earth.

  • Corals can only live in _____ salt water where there is enough ______ for photosynthesis. Therefore, coral reefs are only found in shallow, tropical seas.

limestone

diverse

warm

light


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Threats to Coral Reefs

  • If the water surrounding a reef is too hot or cold, or if fresh water drains into the water surrounding a reef, corals have trouble producing limestone.

  • If the water is too muddy, too polluted, or too high in nutrients, algae that live within the corals will die or grow out of control and smother the corals.

  • Oil spills, sewage, pesticide, and silt runoff have all been linked to coral reef destruction.



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The Ocean

  • Ocean covers nearly _____ of the Earth’s surface.

  • Plants can only grow where there are nutrients and enough light for _________.

  • Therefore, the open ocean is one of the _______ productive of all ecosystems.

  • The depths of the ocean are perpetually dark, and most of the food consists of dead organisms that fall from the surface.

3/4

photosynthesis

least


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The Ocean

  • The viper fish is a deep-sea fish that lives at depths of 600m or more.


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The Ocean

  • The density of salt water permits many jelly like animals to remain buoyant and move through the sea.


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Threats to the Ocean

  • The oceans are huge but are becoming increasingly more polluted.

  • Overfishing is also destroying fish populations.



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Polar Ecosystems

  • The ice-covered polar caps can be considered marine ecosystems because nearly all food is provided by phytoplankton in the ocean.

  • The ______ Pole is in the Artic Ocean and the ______ Pole is in Antarctica.

  • ________ provides the main source of food at both poles.

North

South

Plankton


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Threats to Polar Ecosystems

  • Oil extraction, tourism, and garbage are the worst threats to the polar ecosystems.

  • Conservationists want these areas to become world wildlife refuges.




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