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Microprocessor based Design for Biomedical Applications MBE 3 – MDBA V : Bioelectric Signals Characteristics

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Microprocessor based Design for Biomedical Applications MBE 3 – MDBA V : Bioelectric Signals Characteristics. last Lecture: Interrupt driven Uart Communication Setup stdio- functions, printf Atmega8 Analog Digital Conveter Analog Comparator. Today:

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slide1

Microprocessor based Design for Biomedical ApplicationsMBE 3 – MDBAV : Bioelectric SignalsCharacteristics

slide2

last Lecture:Interrupt driven Uart Communication

Setup stdio- functions, printf

Atmega8 Analog Digital Conveter

Analog Comparator

slide3

Today:

Origin and characteristics of bioelectric signals

Electrodes and sensors

Review of Project exercises

Programming

slide6

Electrical and chemical gradients

at the semi-permeable cell membrane

slide7

Electrical and chemical gradients

at the semi-permeable cell membrane

slide8

Nernst – equation (chemical potential):

R … Gas-Constant = 8,3143 J / (mol·K)

T … Temperature (Kelvin)

Goldman – equation (for different ions):

As a result, we get a membrane resting potential of about -70mV

slide9

Depolarization

Sodium Cations

rush in

Hyperpolarization

Potassom Cations

rush out

slide10

Maintaining the

Resting potential

Sodium/potassum

Ion pump

slide11

Voltage- and Time dependent activation of Ion Channels:

the physiological basis for action potentials

Sodium-Channel Potassum- Channel

slide12

Hodgkin - Huxley Model (1952)

●Researched the Giant Squid-Axon

●Used the Voltage-Clamp technique

-> Isolation of channel currents of

Na und K

●Developed a model for the function

of the channel proteines

Alan Hodgkin

Andrew Huxley

slide13

Sodium and Potassum conductance

Calculated by the Hodkin Huxley Model (curve), measured (dots)

slide16

Axo-dendritic

transmission of

action potentials,

Synaptic transduction

slide19

Signal Pathways

in the central nervous system

slide21

ECG Electro-Cardiogram, Heart activityEMG Electro-Myogram, Muscle movementEOG Electro-Oculogram, Eye movementEEG Electro-EncephalogramGSRGalvanic Skin Response

● Measured with electrodes: skin-electrode interface: Ions <--> Electrodes

Breathing, temperature, movement etc.

● Measured with other sensors / transducers:

NTC, LDR, piezo-crystal, hall-sensor, Accelerometer, Goniometer, …

slide27

ECG - applications

● Diagnostics

●Functional analysis

●Implants (pace maker)

●Biofeedback (Heartrate variability, HRV)

● Peak Performacne Training, Monitoring

slide30

EMG electrodes

(active)

EMG electrodes (passive)

slide36

EMG - applications

● Rehabilitation

●Functional analysis

●active Prothetics, Orthesis

●Biomechanics, Sports medicine

slide40

EOG - applications

● Diagnostics

●Functional analysis

●Human Computer Interfaces

slide48

Auditory Evoked

Potentials (AEP)

Trial averaging

Also:

VEP

SSEP

slide53

Singe disk gold plated electrodes

Active EEG- electrode

Ear clip electrode

slide54

EEG - applications

● Diagnostics (Epilepsy, Oncology, ..)

● Cognitive Sciences

● Sleep Analysis

● Human Computer Interfaces (BCIs)

● Pharmacology

● Intensive Care, Monitoring

slide58

Galvanic Skin response (GSR) Electrodermal Activity (EDA)Skin Conductance Level (SCL)

peripheral body temperature

slide59

Summary bioelectric signals

Frequency Amplitude (mV)

ECG 0,2 – 300 0,1 - 3

EEG DC – 100 0,005 - 0,2

EEG (cortical) 10 – 100 0,015 - 0,3

EMG 10 – 1000 0,1 - 5

EMG (needle) 10 – 10000 0,05 - 5

EOG 0 – 30 0,1 - 2

Intracell. 0 – 10000 50 .. 130

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