Electroplating to make nanostructures
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Electroplating to make nanostructures. Cu 2+. Cu solid. Cu 2+. 2e -. Cu 2+. Cu ions in solution. - The chemical conversion of ions in solution into a solid deposit of metal atoms with the work of a electrical power supply. Electroplating. M z+ + ze - –> M (0). Cu 2+ + 2e - –> Cu (0).

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Electroplating l.jpg

Cu2+

Cu solid

Cu2+

2e-

Cu2+

Cu ions in solution

- The chemical conversion of ions in solution into a solid deposit of metal atoms with the work of a electrical power supply

Electroplating

Mz+ + ze- –> M(0)

Cu2+ + 2e- –> Cu(0)


Electroplating cell l.jpg

Working

Electrode

(WE)

Counter

Electrode

(CE)

"oxidation"

Cu(0) –> Cu2+ + 2e-

Electroplating Cell

I

V

cathode

anode

CuSO4 dissolved in water

If using an inert Pt electrode:

2 H2O –>

O2 + 4H+ + 4e-

"reduction"

Cu2+ + 2e- –> Cu(0)


Amount of deposition l.jpg

I

2e-

ammeter

Cu2+

If I is constant

The number of atoms deposited is proportional to the number of electrons passed through the circuit

- We can determine this by measuring the current

Amount of Deposition

# electrons = Q/e = It/e where e = 1.6 x 10-19 C

# atoms = # electrons/z = It/ez

# moles of atoms = # atoms/NA = It/ezNA

eNA = (1.6 x 10-19 C)(6.02 x 1023) = 96,500 C = F = "1 Faraday"

# moles of atoms = It/Fz


Amount of deposition cont l.jpg

I

# moles of atoms = It/Fz

Amount of Deposition (cont.)

2e-

ammeter

m = mass = (It/Fz)(gram atomic weight)

e.g., AWCu = 63.55 g/mole

Cu2+

t = film thickness = (mass)/(density • area) = m/(A)

Note that these equations assume 100% current efficiency (CE) - that is, assuming that all of the electrons are used for converting metal ions. However, another reduction reaction may compete for electrons making the CE less than 100%. For example, 2H+ + 2e- –> H2 . CE must be determined by an independent measurement.


Slide6 l.jpg

Why choose electroplating to make nanostructures??

The process is easy to operate and only needs

simple equipment.

It’s simple to control the deposition rate by

controlling the voltage or current.

It’s a good way to make Nanowires in a porous template.


Slide7 l.jpg

Electrodeposited Nanowires

nanoporous template

nanowires

in a diblock

copolymer

template

nanowires

in a

polycarbonate

filter


Slide8 l.jpg

Application

If the nanowires are magnetic, they can be used to store data

Data storage elements

1 0 0 1 1

(arrow indicates the direction of magnetization)


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