Early learning standards a huge problem or a huge possibility
Download
1 / 74

Early Learning Standards: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 550 Views
  • Updated On :

Early Learning Standards: A Huge Problem or A Huge Possibility? Sharon L. Kagan, Ed.D. Santa Monica, CA November 19, 2005 Overview The History of Play in ECE The Importance of Play to Development Contemporary Context Defining Standards Different Types of Standards

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Early Learning Standards:' - benjamin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Early learning standards a huge problem or a huge possibility l.jpg

Early Learning Standards:A Huge ProblemorA Huge Possibility?

Sharon L. Kagan, Ed.D.

Santa Monica, CA

November 19, 2005


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • The History of Play in ECE

  • The Importance of Play to Development

  • Contemporary Context

  • Defining Standards

  • Different Types of Standards

  • Early Learning and Development Standards

  • Using Standards

  • Standards in Action

  • Concluding Thoughts



The history of play in ece l.jpg
The History of Play in ECE

  • The commitment to play dates back a long, long time in early childhood education

  • Froebel and Pestalozzi were pioneers in advocating the use of play in childrearing and education

  • Piaget viewed play as the mode by which children understand their experience and development


The history of play in ece5 l.jpg
The History of Play in ECE

  • Since then, leading scholars in early childhood education have all recognized that play is the basis of good early childhood pedagogy and practice

  • Moreover, play is THE fundamental cornerstone for children’s development



Domains of development l.jpg
Domains of Development

  • About 10 years ago, the National Education Goals Panel was assigned the task of determining what the research said about the most significant domains of development for young children

  • Groups of scholars and teachers reviewed decades of research and hundreeds of articles and concluded that:


Domains of development8 l.jpg
Domains of Development

  • There are five major domains of development:

    • Physical Health, Well-Being and Motor Development

    • Social and Emotional Development

    • Approaches Toward Learning

    • Language, Literacy and Communication

    • Cognition and General Knowledge


Domains of development9 l.jpg
Domains of Development

  • Since then, these five domains have been widely accepted, and have been used for a variety of purposes

  • Today, we are going to use the five domains to answer two questions:


Domains of development10 l.jpg
Domains of Development

  • First,

    How can and does

    play

    help children’s development

    progress in each of the domains?


The importance of play to development l.jpg
The Importance of Play to Development

  • Physical Health, Well-Being and Motor Development

    • Indoor play equipment can promote gross-motor skills

      • Steps, balance beams, jump ropes, bean bag toss, hollow blocks, strollers for dramatic play

    • Outdoor play improves motor fitness

    • Manual dexterity is enhanced by activities such as drawing and painting, working with playdough, and constructing with Legos

    • Sensorimotor skill development is also enhanced through play

      • Coordinated movement such as kicking a ball


The importance of play to development12 l.jpg
The Importance of Play to Development

  • Social and Emotional Development

    • Symbolic role taking of dramatic play provides children opportunities to identify their own feelings and others’

    • Contact with playmates helps children develop cooperative, reciprocal relationships and gain mutual understanding and trust

    • Pretend play helps children form their personalities and develop social skills


The importance of play to development13 l.jpg
The Importance of Play to Development

  • Approaches Toward Learning

    • This domain encompasses efforts that enable children to approach learning tasks with confidence and zest

    • These goals derive from a variety of efforts, many of them involved with representation through play and the arts

    • Representational activity evokes major cognitive benefits

      • Allows child to make permanent what could be fleeting

      • Allows child to edit or perfect work

      • Allows child to make ideas public

      • Enables “flexible purposing” – the ability to set a goal and shift gears when necessary


The importance of play to development14 l.jpg
The Importance of Play to Development

  • Language, Literacy and Communication

    • Play has been found to accelerate communication

    • Play fosters the three basic functions of language: communication, expression, and reasoning

    • Symbolic play is related to understanding written language


The importance of play to development15 l.jpg
The Importance of Play to Development

  • Cognition and General Knowledge

    • Play is the primary vehicle for concept development and problem solving

    • Play provides opportunities for contact with multiple stimuli, inducing the development of categorization, generalization, and conceptual acquisition skills

    • Play contributes to a vast range of specific cognitive processes and to generic functioning


The importance of play to development16 l.jpg
The Importance of Play to Development

So, we see that PLAY does enhance children’s development in all domains…

BUT, the BIG, BIG question is:

Can we maintain fidelity to all domains and play

AND

have early learning standards?

YES, YES, YES

Indeed, the ONLY way to preserve play is via early learning standards



Contemporary context l.jpg
Contemporary Context

  • To those outside ECE, play is always suspect.

  • Today, there is even more concern about play, because:


Contemporary context19 l.jpg
Contemporary Context

  • Press for standards and accountability is changing education and placing more demands on student accomplishment

  • Emphasis is being placed on the more easily measured domains of language and cognition, at the expense of the other three domains

  • Focus is on getting kids academically ready for the more rigorous curriculum in K-3


Contemporary context20 l.jpg
Contemporary Context

  • The consequence is that more people have more to say about ECE,

  • And they are calling for more Rigor, not realizing that Play is Rigorous!!!


Contemporary context21 l.jpg
Contemporary Context

  • The problem is that they are confusing the

    • ENDSof ECE: [what they want children to know and be able to do]

    • PROCESSof ECE: [Play]


Contemporary context22 l.jpg
Contemporary Context

  • We need to focus on both: the ends (or the standards) and the means (or the process) of early education, which is play

  • Play is a known given!!!

  • Standards are unknown…so we need to turn to them to understand them better…



Defining standards l.jpg
Defining Standards

What are standards?

Statements that are used as a basis of comparison in measuring quality, value, or quantity.


Defining standards25 l.jpg
Defining Standards

Common Standards…

The weight a child should achieve at birth to be considered healthy


Defining standards26 l.jpg
Defining Standards

The grades a student receives to be considered competent

Report Card A+


Defining standards27 l.jpg
Defining Standards

The skills one demonstrates to be certified as a teacher, plumber, doctor, driver, etc.


Defining standards28 l.jpg
Defining Standards

Standards are a part of our daily

life—so routine, we may not even recognize them as standards.


Defining standards29 l.jpg
Defining Standards

Why are standards important?

  • Lend precision to vague constructs

  • Help to clarify what we want to achieve

  • Provide an opportunity to build consensus

  • Establish a base for measurement

  • Can produce more equitable outcomes

  • Can advance an agenda like school readiness


Slide30 l.jpg
BUT…

There are many different kinds

of standards related to

school readiness.



Different types of standards l.jpg
Different Types of Standards

I. II. III.

Early Learning & Development Teacher Standards Program/School Standards

Standards

IV. V. VI.

Social Indicators Access to Services Systemic Effectiveness


Slide33 l.jpg

I. Defines what children should know and be able to do.

Early Learning & Development Standards

Example: Four-year-old children will be able to state name, where they live, parents’ names, and siblings’ names.

Note: These are usually manifest in children’s behavior or discourse.


Slide34 l.jpg

II. Defines what teachers should know and do to advance their students’ learning.

Teacher Standards

Example: All teachers should know how to assess their students’ competence and report such findings to parents.

Note: These are usually the basis for teacher preparation programs.


Slide35 l.jpg

III. Defines the nature of the program or school. their students’ learning.

Program/School Standards

Example: Every program will have indoor and outdoor space.

Example: Every program will have appropriate developmental materials for children.

Example: Every program will welcome families.


Slide36 l.jpg

IV. Defines the nature of the social context in which the child exists (family and community conditions).

Social Indicators

Example: The percentage of children who live in poverty.

Example: The percentage of children who are born malnourished.

Note: These are usually phrased in terms of risk factors.


V defines the nature and amount of children who have access to diverse services l.jpg
V. child exists (family and community conditions).Defines the nature and amount of children who have access to diverse services.

Example:The percentage of children who have access to high-quality child development programs.

Example:The percentage of children who have developmental screenings upon entry to preschool programs.

Note:These are usually defined for a geographic catchment, area, city, town, or neighborhood.

Access to Services


Vi defines the degree to which elements or disparate services work together l.jpg
VI. child exists (family and community conditions).Defines the degree to which elements or disparate services work together.

Example: The cost savings that are realized when programs buy supplies jointly.

Note: This is the least well-developed area, and is often quite problematic for nations and states with highly diverse delivery systems.

System Effectiveness


Different types of standards39 l.jpg

We are focusing on Bucket One: child exists (family and community conditions).

Early Learning & Development Standards:

Standards that specify what children know and can do

Different Types of Standards

I.


Vi early learning and development standards l.jpg

VI. Early Learning and Development Standards child exists (family and community conditions).


Early learning development standards l.jpg
Early Learning & Development Standards child exists (family and community conditions).

Statements of expectation for

“what children should know

and

be able to do”


Returning to the negp domains and the second question l.jpg
Returning to the NEGP Domains and the Second Question: child exists (family and community conditions).

  • Physical Health, Well-Being, and Motor Development

  • Social & Emotional Development

  • Approaches Toward Learning

  • Language, Literacy & Communication

  • Cognition and General Knowledge

    What are examples of standards?


Physical and motor development l.jpg
Physical and Motor Development child exists (family and community conditions).

  • Run around obstacles and corners

  • Walk up and down stairs, alternating feet, without assistance

  • Throw and catch large balls

  • Kick ball forward

  • By age four, children will be able to…


Social emotional development l.jpg
Social & Emotional Development child exists (family and community conditions).

  • By age four, children will be able to…

  • Take turns and share with peers to have fun playing together

  • Show understanding of the consequences of own actions on others

  • Describe how own actions make others feel and behave

  • Show empathy for hurt child


Approaches toward learning l.jpg
Approaches Toward Learning child exists (family and community conditions).

  • By age four, children will be able to…

  • Invent new activities or games

  • Use imagination to create a variety of ideas

  • Make up words, songs, or stories

  • Express ideas through art, construction, movement, or music

  • Engage in pretend play


Language literacy communication l.jpg
Language, Literacy & Communication child exists (family and community conditions).

  • By age four, children will be able to…

  • Speak clearly enough to be understood by most listeners

  • Use multiple-word sentence(s) to communicate needs, ideas, actions, and/or feelings

  • Repeat works or ideas to be sure information is communicated

  • Draw a picture with objects and people to communicate an idea or event with assistance


Cognition and general knowledge l.jpg
Cognition and General Knowledge child exists (family and community conditions).

  • By age four, children will be able to…

  • Explore various ways to solve a problem and select one option

  • Seek assistance from another child or an adult to solve problems

  • Modify actions based on new information and experiences


Vii using standards l.jpg

VII. Using Standards child exists (family and community conditions).


Slide49 l.jpg

Your Standards are the BASIS for Many Diverse Uses: child exists (family and community conditions).

Evaluate Programs

Improve Parenting Skills and Behaviors

Improve Instruction

Early Learning & Development Standards

Improve Diagnostic Screening

Improve Public Knowledge of Children’s Development

Improve Teacher Preparation

Monitor National Progress


Some of the uses directly benefit individuals l.jpg
Some of the Uses Directly Benefit Individuals child exists (family and community conditions).

  • Improve parenting

  • Improve diagnostic screening

  • Improve teacher preparation

  • Improve instruction


Slide51 l.jpg

Benefits Individuals! child exists (family and community conditions).

Improve Instruction

Improve Diagnostic Screening

Improve Parenting Skills

Improve Teacher Preparation


Some of the uses directly benefit the total population l.jpg
Some of the Uses Directly Benefit the Total Population child exists (family and community conditions).

  • Improve the public knowledge of child development

  • Evaluate programs

  • Monitor national progress


Slide53 l.jpg

Benefits Total Population! child exists (family and community conditions).

Public Knowledge

Program Evaluation

National Monitoring


Slide54 l.jpg

Provide, for the first time, an integrated approach! child exists (family and community conditions).

Public Knowledge

Improve Instruction

Improve Diagnostic Screening

National Monitoring

Program Evaluation

Improve Parenting Skills

Teacher Preparation


The beauty of the standards is that we are creating an integrated approach to school readiness l.jpg
The beauty of the standards is that we are creating an integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Standards


Consider your standards as a bank l.jpg
Consider Your Standards as a Bank integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Standards Bank

Improve Instruction

Improve Parenting Skills

Improve Diagnostic Screening

Improve Teacher Preparation

Evaluate Programs

Monitor National Programs

Improve Public Knowledge of Children’s Development


Possible use i l.jpg
Possible Use I integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Improve Instruction

  • Used as an observation guide for

    children’s progress

  • Can aggregate results into a class profile

  • Can use as the base for planning class activities and tailoring them to children’s needs

  • When used to improve instruction, we:

    • Use items from all domains

    • Use with all children

    • Conduct the observations at least 2 or 3 times a year


Possible use ii l.jpg
Possible Use II integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Improve Parenting Skills and Behaviors

  • Use as the basis for pedagogical activities

    and the development of learning materials

    to be used in the home

  • Help parents better understand realistic expectations for children and their progress

  • When we use standards for this purpose, we usually

    • Use items from all domains

    • Use as a guide


Possible use iii l.jpg
Possible Use III integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Improve Public Knowledge

  • Use as the basis for public service announcements

  • Use to train media reporters

  • Use to inform policy makers

  • Use to inform public at large

  • When we use standards for this purpose, we

    • Don’t use all of them

    • Pick those that are most clear to the public


Possible use iv l.jpg
Possible Use IV integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Diagnostic Screening Tool

  • Use standards as the basis for developing screening tools

    • Can use to screen large numbers of children for learning or behavioral status

    • Screening is always followed by more detailed assessments


Possible use v l.jpg
Possible Use V integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Improve Teacher Preparation and Certification

  • Use to train teachers of young children what they should be exposing children to

  • Could establish modules around the domains

  • Use standards to develop teacher certification criteria that specify what teachers should know and do

  • Use as the basis for revamping teacher education


Possible use vi l.jpg
Possible Use VI integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Program Evaluation

  • Become basis for data collection

    instruments that assess child outcomes

  • Collect data on program variables (e.g., group size, teacher quality) and relate to child outcomes

  • Use to make decisions about effectiveness of programs


Possible use vii l.jpg
Possible Use VII integrated approach to school readiness!!!

National Monitoring

  • Collect national data on performance of children to tell how the nation’s children as a whole are doing

    • Don’t need data on all children

    • Don’t need all items – can matrix sample

    • Don’t need it annually


Viii standards in action what do teachers and parents think l.jpg

VIII. Standards in Action: integrated approach to school readiness!!!What do Teachers and Parents Think?


Pilot project on standards driven instruction l.jpg
Pilot Project on Standards-Driven Instruction integrated approach to school readiness!!!

  • Part of the Head Start Improvement Efforts

  • Selected eight demonstration efforts to be implemented and evaluated

  • Teachers College was awarded one of the grants and worked with teachers and parents in several communities to implement a new approach to classroom instruction


Pilot project on standards driven instruction66 l.jpg
Pilot Project on Standards-Driven Instruction integrated approach to school readiness!!!

  • Teachers received lots of support

  • Teachers conducted child assessments

  • Teachers used the data from the child assessments to plan their programs

  • Teachers reassessed the children periodically

  • Teachers adjusted their classrooms to accommodate children’s learning needs, AND

    ALL THE WHILE, THE CHILDREN PLAYED


Pilot project on standards driven instruction67 l.jpg
Pilot Project on Standards-Driven Instruction integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Results: Teacher Practices

  • Teachers are better able to connect observation data to specific developmental tasks, and use this data to improve curriculum, teaching practices, and communication to parents

    • Before: “This child has no interest in science and math areas.”

    • After: “I have to plan different activities and experiences to draw his interest to these areas. “


Pilot project on standards driven instruction68 l.jpg
Pilot Project on Standards-Driven Instruction integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Results: Teacher Practices

  • Teachers better understand the developmental domains, focus more on the whole child to meet their individual needs

    • Before: A teacher’s key focus was on a child’s social-emotional, challenging behaviors.

    • After: The teacher can now recognize the child’s many “can do” abilities in all developmental domains.


Pilot project on standards driven instruction69 l.jpg
Pilot Project on Standards-Driven Instruction integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Results: Teacher Practices

  • Project provided validation as professionals

    • “The classroom became a community with purpose. The project made us have purpose - know ‘why’ we're doing it.”

    • “It helped us learn how to run a better classroom. How to communicate better. How to work with the individual child better.”


Pilot project on standards driven instruction70 l.jpg
Pilot Project on Standards-Driven Instruction integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Results: Teacher Practices

  • Assessments gave teachers new ways to help children learn

    • “From observing we find out what the child knows, and what can be completed and accomplished by the child. From the anecdotal notes we find out what the child has learned, what they need, and how we can help the child.”

    • “We can see where the child is, and where they need help, where without the assessments we might have overlooked something. It shows us things we may not have thought of. It shows us what way we can go. It gives us better insight into the things.”


Pilot project on standards driven instruction71 l.jpg
Pilot Project on Standards-Driven Instruction integrated approach to school readiness!!!

Results: Child School Readiness

  • Children are demonstrating significantly greater gains in several areas, including:

  • Letter Knowledge (letter naming and identification)

  • Dictation (early writing skills)

  • Sustained Attention (staying on task)

Note: Results are based on t-tests of change scores. Reported differences in gains are significant at p<.05.


Ix concluding thoughts l.jpg

IX. Concluding Thoughts integrated approach to school readiness!!!


Concluding thoughts l.jpg
Concluding Thoughts integrated approach to school readiness!!!

  • You have a right to be concerned about standards – they represent a different way of doing things

  • The present push is to use them in the wrong way and to make them too narrow

  • By understanding standards, their potential, and how to link them to play, we can:

    • Improve quality of our teaching

    • Improve outcomes for kids

    • Improve parents’ understanding of early childhood

    • Improve policy makers’ understanding of our work and its importance


Concluding thoughts74 l.jpg
Concluding Thoughts integrated approach to school readiness!!!

  • Done well, and we CAN do it well, standards and play are the best combination for ECE

    It’s not an either/or; it’s a BOTH


ad