Cranial and Peripheral Nerves

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Cranial and Peripheral Nerves

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1. Cranial and Peripheral Nerves Principles of anatomy-ANSC 2202 Fall 2006

3. Types of neurons in the PNS Cranial - connects the brain with the periphery Sensory (afferent) - carry information INTO the CNS from sense organs Motor (efferent) - carry information away from the CNS (for muscle control). Spinal - connects the spinal cord with the periphery: Somatic - connects the skin or muscle with the CNS; afferent and efferent Autonomic - connects the internal organs with the CNS; afferent and efferent

4. Central nervous system

5. The Brain: sagittal section of a sheeps brain: A review

6. The spinal cord Extension of brain stem starting at the foramen magnum and ending at: L1 in humans (extension of pia matter attaches to coccyx) S2 in animals 2 roles: Transmission of nerve impulses (white matter-axons; grey matter-nuclei) Spinal reflexes

7. The spinal cord

8. The spinal cord

9. The spinal cord

10. Spinal reflexes

11. Damages to the Central Nervous System Brain does not regenerate Spinal cord: If severed: function below the lesion will not be restored Babinski (extensor toe) reflex: withdrawal = chronic spinal cord lesion Patellar (knee-jerk) reflex: no kick = femoral nerve and/or segment of spinal cord L4-6 Partial damage: may recover but stagnates after a certain period

12. Peripheral nervous system

13. PNS: Cranial nerves (12 pairs)

14. Function of cranial nerves

15. Cranial nerves: origin

16. Damage to the cranial nerves Pupillary light reflex: oculomotor nerve: flash light in right pupil: right pupil should constrict more Corneal and palpebral (eyelid) reflexes (state of anesthesia): trigeminal nerve: blink before touching eyelids (ophtalmic branch); retraction of ocular globe when touch cornea (maxillary branch) Reaction to smell (link with appetite): olfactory nerve (see experiment with Boar Mate) Torticollis: spinal accessory nerve: neck muscles innervation Pharynx paralysis: glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves: rabies!!

17. PNS: Spinal nerves (31 pairs; dont need to identify them all) Anatomy: Emerges from dorsal and ventral roots Emerges through intervertebral foramen (except 1st spinal nerve) Somatic and autonomic systems

18. Somatic nervous system (skeletal muscles)

19. Autonomic nervous system: organization

20. Autonomic nervous system: organization

21. Differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic (autonomic nervous system)

22. Autonomic nervous system: targets

23. Autonomic nervous system: targets

24. Some important spinal nerves (pig)

25. Some important spinal nerves (human)

26. Damages to peripheral nerves Sciatic nerve pinched: lower back pain Foot nerves: 90% of all lameness in horses. Heel, pastern/foot and fetlock blocks should identify damage; if not, work way up he limb. Knee-jerk reflex

27. Conclusion CNS: brain + spinal cord PNS: cranial+ peripheral nerves: Somatic nervous system: skeletal muscle control Autonomic nervous system: smooth and cardiac muscle. Sympathetic/parasympathetic and fight/flight reactions Neurological exams: non invasive, symptoms often specific to one type of lesion To suspect if pain does not originate in muscles, tendons,

28. The end Stations Knee-jerk reflex Pupillary light reflex Palpebral reflex Spinal cord model Fetal pig, dissect: Vagus and sciatic nerves Brain Handout - Table of cranial nerves (with function and type-sensory or motor or both) Answer the vignettes Sympathetic/parasympathetic actions

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