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Consumer response to communication programs. Outline. Communication objectives Attitudes and their measurement Attitude change and persuasion The two routes to persuasion Central-route approaches Peripheral-route approaches. Communication objectives. Category need Brand awareness

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Outline
Outline

  • Communication objectives

  • Attitudes and their measurement

  • Attitude change and persuasion

    • The two routes to persuasion

    • Central-route approaches

    • Peripheral-route approaches


Communication objectives
Communication objectives

  • Category need

  • Brand awareness

  • Brand attitude

  • Brand purchase intention/purchase


Attitudes
Attitudes

definition:

a tendency to evaluate people (e.g., a salesperson), objects (e.g., a product, an ad), or events (e.g., the purchase of a brand) with some degree of favorability or unfavorability;

components of an attitude:

  • cognitive component: beliefs about the attitude concept;

  • affective component: feeling-based reactions toward the attitude concept;

  • conative component: overt behavioral responses or intentions to act;


Measurement of attitudes
Measurement of attitudes

  • Likert scaling: statements that are thought to reflect either a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the concept of interest are rated on agree-disagree scales (typically 5-point scales) and the ratings are then summated (after reverse-scoring negative items);

  • semantic differential scaling: the attitude concept is rated on a series of bipolar adjective scales (typically 7-point scales) such as good-bad, favorable-unfavorable, or pleasant-unpleasant;


Advertising is generally informative.

__1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__

strongly disagree neither agree strongly

disagree agree

Most advertising insults my intelligence.

__1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__

strongly disagree neither agree strongly

disagree agree


My attitude toward advertising can be best described as:

Positive _1_ _2_ _3_ _4_ _5_ _6_ _7_ Negative

Unfavorable _1_ _2_ _3_ _4_ _5_ _6_ _7_ Favorable

Good _1_ _2_ _3_ _4_ _5_ _6_ _7_ Bad


Two routes to persuasion
Two routes to persuasion

  • there are two routes to persuasion:

    • central route: people scrutinize the arguments in the message;

    • peripheral route: cues that are not based on a careful consideration of the true merits of the message can have persuasive impact;

  • a person’s motivation and/or ability to engage in issue-relevant thinking determines the route:

    • when motivation and ability are high, attitudes change follows the central route;

    • when motivation and/or ability are low, attitude change occurs via the peripheral route;


The two routes to attitude change
The two routes to attitude change

persuasive

communication

nature of cognitive processing ?

yes

yes

ability

to process ?

motivation

to process ?

favorable

thoughts

predominate

neither or

neutral thoughts

predominate

unfavorable

thoughts

predominate

no

no

peripheral

cue present ?

central positive

attitude change

central negative

attitude change

yes

peripheral

attitude shift


Influences on persuasion
Influences on persuasion

variables can influence the extent and direction of attitude change by:

  • serving as persuasive arguments (e.g., weak vs. strong arguments);

  • serving as peripheral cues (e.g., source expertise or attractiveness, number of arguments);

  • affecting the extent and direction of message elaboration (e.g., involvement as a determinant of motivation to process and distraction as a determinant of ability to process);


Effects of the two routes to persuasion
Effects of the two routes to persuasion

  • centrally changed attitudes are relatively enduring, resistant to counterpersuasion, and predictive of behavior;

  • peripherally changed attitudes are more temporary, susceptible to counter-persuasion, and less predictive of behavior;


Involvement and persuasion petty et al
Involvement and persuasion(Petty et al.)

  • 160 Ss were exposed to 12 ads, one of which was the target ad for a fictitious product called the Edge razor;

  • Ss were assigned to one of the 8 cells in a 2 (involvement: low or high) x 2 (argument quality: weak or strong) x 2 (peripheral cue: celebrity or noncelebrity status) factorial design;

  • involvementwas manipulated by promising Ss a gift of either a brand of disposable razors or a brand of toothpaste and by telling Ss that Edge razors would soon be introduced in their own city or test marketed in another part of the country;

  • argument qualitywas manipulated by presenting five cogent (e.g., advanced honing method for unsurpassed sharpness) or five specious (e.g., floats in water with a minimum of rust) product claims in the ad;

  • in the celebrity status condition, famous golf and tennis celebrities endorsed the product, in the noncelebrity status condition Bakersfield, CA, endorsed it;

  • attitude toward the product and purchase intentions as the dependent variables;


Involvement and persuasion cont d

strong arguments

atti-

tude

atti-

tude

noncelebrity

celebrity

weak arguments

involve-

ment

involve-

ment

low

high

low

high

Involvement and persuasion (cont’d)

  • attitudes: significant involvement x endorser and involvement x argument quality interactions;

  • intentions: argument quality was a more important determinant of purchase intentions under high rather than low involvement; attitudes were better predictors of intentions under high involvement;


Central route persuasion fishbein s expectancy value model
Central-route persuasion: Fishbein’s expectancy-value model

attitudes are a function of the strength of beliefs about the attitude concept and the evaluative aspect of those beliefs;

Ac = S bi ei

  • components:

    • number of salient beliefs (i=1, ..., n)

    • strength of each belief ( bi)

    • evaluative aspect of each belief (ei )


My attitude toward Jif creamy peanut butter can be best described as:

Unfavorable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Favorable

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)


fatty described as:

creamy

Jif

Unlikely ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Likely

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Bad ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Good

(-3) (-2) (-1) (0) (+1) (+2) (+3)

fresh roasted

peanut taste


Changing cognitive structure using the ev model
Changing cognitive structure described as:using the EV model

  • add a new positive belief;

  • increase the strength of an existing positive belief;

  • increase the evaluation of a strongly held positive belief;


Central route persuasion the cognitive response model
Central-route persuasion: described as:The cognitive response model

  • people actively relate information contained in persuasive messages to extant knowledge stored in memory and generate idiosyncratic thoughts in response to the message (so-called cognitive responses);

  • attitude change depends on

    • the extent of processing

    • the valence of thoughts


The measurement of cognitive responses
The measurement of described as:cognitive responses

  • use of post-message thought listings to assess cognitive responses;

  • when content analyzing subjects’ thought protocols, cognitive responses are often classified as support arguments, counter arguments, or source derogations;


Peripheral route persuasion
Peripheral-route persuasion described as:

  • source effects: credibility, attractiveness, and liking of the spokesperson;

  • message effects: number of arguments, inferences based on brand name or product attributes, etc.;

  • context effects: message repetition, program or editorial context, mood;


Using classical respondent conditioning for peripheral persuasion
Using classical (respondent) conditioning for peripheral persuasion

elicits

UCS

UCR

I.

elicits

UCR

II.

UCS

paired

with

NS (CS to be)

comes to elicit

III.

CS

CR


Classical conditioning cont d
Classical conditioning (cont’d) persuasion

  • CS and UCS should be paired repeatedly and consistently;

  • forward conditioning is better than backward conditioning;

  • CC is more effective when the UCS and CS are novel, salient, and relevant or similar to each other (because associations are more easily formed);


Music and pen choice gorn
Music and persuasionpen choice (Gorn)

  • one-minute extract of music from “Grease” as the positive UCS, one minute of atonal Indian classical music as the negative UCS; light blue and beige pens as originally neutral CS;

  • Ss watched a slide of either a light blue or beige pen while hearing either liked or disliked music;

  • as a reward for their participation in the study, Ss could choose either a light blue or beige pen;

  • finally, Ss were asked why they had picked a pen with a particular color;


Music and pen choice cont d
Music and pen choice (cont’d) persuasion

  • effect of music on pen choice:

choice of

advertised pen

choice of non-

advertised pen

liked

music

79%

21%

disliked

music

30%

70%

  • 91% of the people who provided a reason for their choice mentioned color preference as their reason;


Attitudes and behavior the theory of reasoned action tra fishbein and ajzen
Attitudes and behavior: persuasionThe Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)(Fishbein and Ajzen)

B = f(BI) = w1 Aact + w2 SN

where: B = behavior

BI = behavioral intention

Aact = attitude toward the behavior

SN = subjective norm

w1, w2 = weights that reflect the relative influence

of Aact and SN


Components of the TRA persuasion

  • Aact: a person’s evaluation of performing the behavior

  • Aact = S bi ei

  • components:

    • outcomes or consequences of behavior (i=1, ..., m)

    • strength of behavioral beliefs (bi)

    • evaluative aspect of each outcome or consequence (ei)

  • SN: a person’s perceptions of the social pressures put on

  • him or her to perform the behavior

  • SN = S NBj MCj

  • components:

    • relevant referents for behavior (j=1, ..., n)

    • strength of normative beliefs (NBj)

    • motivation to comply (MCj)


Components of the TRA (cont’d) persuasion

BI: a plan or an expectation to perform the behavior , which is a

function of both personal and social factors;

BI = w1 Aact + w2 SN

B: actual performance of the behavior

B = f(BI)

Note: if a person does not have complete control over performance of

the behavior, behavioral intentions and behavior may also be a function

of the person’s perceived behavioral control (i.e., how easy or difficult

performance of the behavior is thought to be);



Tra applied to coupon usage cont d
TRA applied to coupon usage (cont’d) persuasion

.71a

EV1

rewards

-.08b

Aact

EV2

.51a

encumbrances

-.12a

EV3

.68a

inconveniences

BI

B

.48a

NB1MC1

spouse

.31a

.10b

SN

NB2MC2

family

Note: standardized path coefficients,

with a p<.01, b p<.05 (one-tailed)

.05

NB3MC3

friends


Conditions under which attitudes and intentions will predict behavior
Conditions under which attitudes and intentions will predict behavior

  • volitional control

  • correspondence in level of specificity

    • action: single/multiple acts

    • target: concept at which action is directed

    • context: situational circumstance of action

    • time: when an action is to be performed

  • stability of attitudes and intentions


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