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Computer System Components Presentation Instructions Use the Navigation Buttons at the bottom of this window to move through the presentation. Use the “Home” Button to go to the Menu if you want to jump to a specific section. END Main Menu Basic Computer Tasks Block Diagram

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computer system components presentation instructions
Computer System ComponentsPresentation Instructions
  • Use the Navigation Buttons at the bottom of this window to move through the presentation.
  • Use the “Home” Button to go to the Menu if you want to jump to a specific section.

END

main menu
Main Menu
  • Basic Computer Tasks
  • Block Diagram
  • Numbers in Computers
  • Non-Volatile Storage
  • Operating Systems
  • Computing “Power”
  • Related Links

END

menu basic computer tasks
Menu - Basic Computer Tasks
  • Input data or instructions
  • Store information in memory
  • Process data
  • Output data or results

END

menu block diagram
Menu - Block Diagram
  • Block Diagram
  • System Controller
  • Processor
  • RAM
  • Hard Drive
  • CD/DVD Drive
  • Expansion Card Slots
  • Graphics Card
  • Peripheral Ports
  • Modem

END

menu numbers in computers
Menu - Numbers in Computers
  • Binary Notation
  • ASCII
  • Units of Memory Size

END

menu non volatile storage
Menu - Non-Volatile Storage
  • Magnetic Non-Volatile Storage
  • Flash Memory
  • Solid-State Drive (SSD)
  • Compact Disc (CD)
  • Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)
  • Disk Formatting

END

menu operating systems
Menu - Operating Systems
  • Operating System (OS)
  • System Compatibility
  • Cross-Platform Transfer

END

menu computing power
Menu - Computing “Power”
  • FLOPS and Processor Speed
  • Processor Efficiency and Data Width
  • Available RAM and RAM Speed
  • Available Hard Drive and Access Time
  • Graphics Card
  • Ports and Expandability

END

computer system components

Computer System Components

Stuff that make them work

Slide 1 of 34

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basic computer tasks
Basic Computer Tasks
  • Input data or instructions
    • Data or instructions are input to the computer by way of an input source.
    • Input devices include: keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, disk drive, and modem.

Slide 2 of 34

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slide11
Store information in memory
    • Data or instructions are stored in memory until the computer is ready to process them.

Slide 3 of 34

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slide12
Process data
    • The computer\'s processor processes the data or instructions by either manipulating the data or performing tasks based on the instructions.

Slide 4 of 34

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slide13
Output data or results
    • The computer outputs the results of its operations to an output device.
    • Output devices include: monitor, printer, speaker, disk drive, and modem.
    • Note that devices such as disk drives and modems are both Input and Output devices.

Slide 5 of 34

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simplified block diagram
Simplified Block Diagram

Slide 6 of 34

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slide15
System Controller
    • “Talks” to the various System Components
    • Controls the flow of Data and Instructions
    • Data “buses” of various widths & speeds

Slide 7 of 34

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slide16
Processor - “Brain” of the Computer.
    • Executes Instructions
      • Performs Math and Logic
    • On-Chip “Backside” Memory Cache
      • Localized Short-Term Storage of data
      • Saves Processing Time

Slide 8 of 34

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slide17
RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • Program and data storage for working data.
    • Read/Write - May be read from, erased, or written to.
    • Volatile (Temporary) - Data is lost when power goes off.

Slide 9 of 34

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slide18
Hard Drive
    • Program and data storage for saved data.
    • Read/Write - May be read from, erased, or written to.
    • Non-Volatile (“Permanent”) - Data is retained when power goes off.

Slide 10 of 34

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slide19
CD/DVD Drive
    • Data stored on Removable Optical Discs.
    • Read/Write capabilities depend on Drive and Disc Type.
    • Non-Volatile (“Permanent”) - Data is retained when power goes off.

Slide 11 of 34

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slide20
Expansion Card Slots
    • Allow additional circuit cards (PCI) for specialized capabilities.

Slide 12 of 34

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slide21
Graphics Card
    • Additional circuit card dedicated to handling graphics capabilities.
    • Has its own on-board memory
      • Larger graphics memory increases speed and resolution of screen images.

Slide 13 of 34

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slide22
Peripheral Ports
    • For Connections to External Devices
    • Various Types of External Bus Formats
      • USB, Ethernet, Firewire-IEEE 1394, etc.

Slide 14 of 34

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slide23
Modem
    • Device for converting computer data transmissions to (MOdulate) and from (DEModulate) a signal which is suitable for long distance transmission.
    • Standard Modem for telephone line connection is commonly housed within the computer cabinet, although an external Modem is also possible.
    • A DSL Modem is required for DSL connections.
    • A Cable Modem is Required for Cable Internet connections.
    • Satellite internet connections require a Satellite Modem.

Slide 15 of 34

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binary notation
Binary Notation
  • The Binary number system is used in computers because it is compatible with the two states of electronic switching circuits - "ON" and "OFF".
  • One "Bit" is a Binary Digit having two possible values - 0 and 1.
  • One "Byte" = 8 Bits which can be used to store 1 alphanumeric character
  • One Byte can represent one of 2^8 or 256 possible values.

Slide 16 of 34

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ascii code american standard code for information interchange
ASCII Code American Standard Code for Information Interchange
  • "ASCII" is a standard binary code in which different combinations of bits are used to represent different letters, numbers, symbols, and control characters.
  • Each character requires one byte.
  • ASCII Examples:
      • 01000001 = A
      • 01000010 = B
      • 01100001 = a
      • 01100010 = b
      • 00110001 = 1
      • 00110010 = 2
      • 00100100 = $
      • 00001101 = Carriage Return

Slide 17 of 34

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units of memory size
Units of Memory Size
  • Kilobyte (K) = 2^10 = 1,024 bytes
    • (Slightly more than 1,000)
  • Megabyte (M) = 2^20 = 1,048,576 bytes
    • (Slightly more than a million or approx. 1,000 K)
  • Gigabyte (G) = 2^30
    • (Slightly more than a billion, or approx. 1,000 M)
  • Terabyte (T) = 2^40
    • (Slightly more than a trillion, or approx. 1,000 G)

Slide 18 of 34

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magnetic non volatile storage
Magnetic - "Non-volatile” Storage
  • Floppy Disk (400K - 1.44M)
    • portable media, very low capacity, very slow, outdated
  • Higher Density Disks & Cartridges (>2.6G)
    • portable media, moderate speed & capacity, outdated
    • ex: Zip (100, 250, 750MB), Jaz, Syquest
  • Hard Drive (> 500G)
    • Internal (non-portable) or External (portable)
    • High speed, high capacity
  • Tape Drive (>200G - used for backup)
    • portable media, used mainly for backup, not widely used
    • Slow non-random access, high capacity

Slide 19 of 34

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flash memory solid state non volatile
Flash Memory Solid-State - "Non-volatile”
  • Flash Memory Cards
    • Capacities > 1GB
    • Very Small and Portable, Moderate to High Speed
    • Common in Digital Cameras & Handheld Devices
    • Generally Require Card Reader
  • “Flash Drives” and “Memory Sticks”
    • Capacities > 2GB
    • Very Small and Portable, Moderate to High Speed
    • Commonly Plug Directly into USB Port

Slide 20 of 34

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solid state drive ssd solid state non volatile
Solid-State Drive (SSD) Solid-State - "Non-volatile”
  • Use either Flash Memory or Battery-backed RAM
  • May be used as replacement for standard “Mechanical” Hard Drive
  • Capacities > 100GB
  • Very Fast - Faster than standard Hard Drive
  • More Resistant to Shock than standard Hard Drive
  • Currently More Expensive than standard Hard Drive

Slide 21 of 34

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compact disc cd optical non volatile
Compact Disc (CD)Optical - “Non-volatile”
    • Up to 700 MB data - (80 min. audio)
    • Drive Speeds - 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 24x,52x, etc.
    • Various Formats - ISO-9660, Joliet, Mac HFS, PhotoCD, Audio, etc.
  • Standard CD-ROM = Read Only - Recorded at factory.
  • CD-R = Recordable - But cannot be erased / rewritten.
  • CD-RW = Rewritable - Can be erased / rewritten.

Slide 22 of 34

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digital versatile disc dvd optical non volatile
Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)Optical - “Non-volatile”

(also called “Digital Video Disc”)

  • Physically the size of a CD.
  • Denser, Multi-layer technology.
  • High storage capacity.
  • Often used for Video.
  • DVD-R, +R (recordable), -RW, +RW (rewritable)
  • DVD: Single-sided single-layer > 4.7 GB
  • DVD DL: Single-sided dual layer > 8.5 GB
  • HD DVD (outdated): Single-sided dual layer > 30 GB
  • Blu-ray Disc: Single-sided dual layer > 50 GB

Slide 23 of 34

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disk formatting
Disk Formatting
  • Erases the entire disk.
  • Records index marks which determine where and how data will be stored on the disk (sets up tracks and sectors).
  • Storage Layout - Generally determined by computer operating system\'s disk access method.

Slide 24 of 34

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operating system os
Operating System (OS)
  • A Control Program which manages the software and hardware resources and establishes a consistent application interface.
  • Generally determines the look and feel of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the file manipulation and transfer protocols.
  • Usually loaded to RAM (booted) from the hard drive upon startup. It may also be loaded from a "Bootable" System CD or DVD instead.

Slide 25 of 34

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system compatibility
System Compatibility
  • Different platforms have different operating systems which are generally not compatible.
    • (MS-DOS, Mac OS, Unix)
  • The same platform may have different operating systems available for it which may not be compatible.
    • Mac >> MacOS 8.6, MacOS 9.1, MacOS X
    • PC >> DOS, Win 98, NT, ME, XP, Vista
  • Newer Macs with Intel Processor have ability to run MacOS, Linux, and Windows.

Slide 26 of 34

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cross platform transfer
Cross-Platform Transfer
  • Some computer platforms have the ability to read data from disks formatted on other platforms.
    • (Macs can read PC formatted disks).
  • To utilize data from another platform, an application must be available which is capable of interpreting that data.
    • (PowerPoint on a Mac can read PC PowerPoint files and vice-versa)

Slide 27 of 34

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computing power what determines a computer s power
Computing "Power”What Determines a Computer\'s "Power"?
  • FLOPS
    • "flops" (floating-point operations per second) along with a standard benchmark is a method of comparing computer performance.
    • 1 Gigaflop = One Billion Floating-point Ops/Sec
  • Processor Speed
    • The higher the processor\'s clock rate, the more operations it can perform per second.
    • Rates measured in "Megahertz" (MHz) or “Gigahertz” (GHz).
    • 1 GHz = One Billion Clock Cycles per Second.
    • Current Microprocessors run at over 2 GHz.

Slide 28 of 34

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slide37
Processor Efficiency and Data Width
    • A more efficient processor gets more done per clock cycle.
    • A Backside Cache provides high speed short-term data storage on the Processor chip.
    • A wider and faster data path (bus) means more data can be moved from one place to another in a given amount of time.
      • Current microprocessors = 32, 64 or 128 bits wide.

Slide 29 of 34

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slide38
Available RAM and RAM Speed
    • More RAM provides more available storage space for opened applications and documents.
    • Data can be moved to and from (solid-state) RAM faster than to other (mechanical) storage devices such as hard drives. So with more RAM, more data is quickly accessible while the computer is working.

Slide 30 of 34

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slide39
Available Hard Drive and Access Time
    • A higher-capacity hard drive provides more "non-volatile" storage space for applications and data.
    • Drives with shorter access times and faster transfer rates make data available quicker - which is important for smooth running digital video and other multimedia applications.
    • A Solid-State Drive (SSD) may be used in place of a standard mechanical Hard Drive to improve speed and resistance to vibration.

Slide 31 of 34

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slide40
Graphics Card
    • A Graphics Card improves the computer\'s graphics capabilities.
    • Dedicated processing of graphics enhances the speed and resolution of display for video and animation applications.

Slide 32 of 34

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slide41
Ports and expandability
    • A variety of expansion ports and additional card slots allow for the connection of various additional equipment options and expanded networking capabilities.

Slide 33 of 34

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related links for more info check out
Related LinksFor more info check out:
  • How Stuff Works Site - Computers
    • http://computer.howstuffworks.com
  • Wikipedia
    • http://en.wikipedia.org

Slide 34 of 34

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