Computer system components presentation instructions
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Components - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Computer System Components Presentation Instructions Use the Navigation Buttons at the bottom of this window to move through the presentation. Use the “Home” Button to go to the Menu if you want to jump to a specific section. END Main Menu Basic Computer Tasks Block Diagram

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Computer System ComponentsPresentation Instructions

  • Use the Navigation Buttons at the bottom of this window to move through the presentation.

  • Use the “Home” Button to go to the Menu if you want to jump to a specific section.


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Main Menu

  • Basic Computer Tasks

  • Block Diagram

  • Numbers in Computers

  • Non-Volatile Storage

  • Operating Systems

  • Computing “Power”

  • Related Links


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Menu - Basic Computer Tasks

  • Input data or instructions

  • Store information in memory

  • Process data

  • Output data or results


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Menu - Block Diagram

  • Block Diagram

  • System Controller

  • Processor

  • RAM

  • Hard Drive

  • CD/DVD Drive

  • Expansion Card Slots

  • Graphics Card

  • Peripheral Ports

  • Modem


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Menu - Numbers in Computers

  • Binary Notation


  • Units of Memory Size


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Menu - Non-Volatile Storage

  • Magnetic Non-Volatile Storage

  • Flash Memory

  • Solid-State Drive (SSD)

  • Compact Disc (CD)

  • Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)

  • Disk Formatting


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Menu - Operating Systems

  • Operating System (OS)

  • System Compatibility

  • Cross-Platform Transfer


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Menu - Computing “Power”

  • FLOPS and Processor Speed

  • Processor Efficiency and Data Width

  • Available RAM and RAM Speed

  • Available Hard Drive and Access Time

  • Graphics Card

  • Ports and Expandability


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Computer System Components

Stuff that make them work

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Basic Computer Tasks

  • Input data or instructions

    • Data or instructions are input to the computer by way of an input source.

    • Input devices include: keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, disk drive, and modem.

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  • Store information in memory

    • Data or instructions are stored in memory until the computer is ready to process them.

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  • Process data

    • The computer's processor processes the data or instructions by either manipulating the data or performing tasks based on the instructions.

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  • Output data or results

    • The computer outputs the results of its operations to an output device.

    • Output devices include: monitor, printer, speaker, disk drive, and modem.

    • Note that devices such as disk drives and modems are both Input and Output devices.

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Simplified Block Diagram

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  • System Controller

    • “Talks” to the various System Components

    • Controls the flow of Data and Instructions

    • Data “buses” of various widths & speeds

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  • RAM (Random Access Memory)

    • Program and data storage for working data.

    • Read/Write - May be read from, erased, or written to.

    • Volatile (Temporary) - Data is lost when power goes off.

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  • Hard Drive

    • Program and data storage for saved data.

    • Read/Write - May be read from, erased, or written to.

    • Non-Volatile (“Permanent”) - Data is retained when power goes off.

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  • CD/DVD Drive

    • Data stored on Removable Optical Discs.

    • Read/Write capabilities depend on Drive and Disc Type.

    • Non-Volatile (“Permanent”) - Data is retained when power goes off.

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  • Graphics Card

    • Additional circuit card dedicated to handling graphics capabilities.

    • Has its own on-board memory

      • Larger graphics memory increases speed and resolution of screen images.

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  • Peripheral Ports

    • For Connections to External Devices

    • Various Types of External Bus Formats

      • USB, Ethernet, Firewire-IEEE 1394, etc.

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  • Modem

    • Device for converting computer data transmissions to (MOdulate) and from (DEModulate) a signal which is suitable for long distance transmission.

    • Standard Modem for telephone line connection is commonly housed within the computer cabinet, although an external Modem is also possible.

    • A DSL Modem is required for DSL connections.

    • A Cable Modem is Required for Cable Internet connections.

    • Satellite internet connections require a Satellite Modem.

Slide 15 of 34


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Binary Notation

  • The Binary number system is used in computers because it is compatible with the two states of electronic switching circuits - "ON" and "OFF".

  • One "Bit" is a Binary Digit having two possible values - 0 and 1.

  • One "Byte" = 8 Bits which can be used to store 1 alphanumeric character

  • One Byte can represent one of 2^8 or 256 possible values.

Slide 16 of 34


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ASCII Code American Standard Code for Information Interchange

  • "ASCII" is a standard binary code in which different combinations of bits are used to represent different letters, numbers, symbols, and control characters.

  • Each character requires one byte.

  • ASCII Examples:

    • 01000001 = A

    • 01000010 = B

    • 01100001 = a

    • 01100010 = b

    • 00110001 = 1

    • 00110010 = 2

    • 00100100 = $

    • 00001101 = Carriage Return

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Units of Memory Size

  • Kilobyte (K) = 2^10 = 1,024 bytes

    • (Slightly more than 1,000)

  • Megabyte (M) = 2^20 = 1,048,576 bytes

    • (Slightly more than a million or approx. 1,000 K)

  • Gigabyte (G) = 2^30

    • (Slightly more than a billion, or approx. 1,000 M)

  • Terabyte (T) = 2^40

    • (Slightly more than a trillion, or approx. 1,000 G)

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Magnetic - "Non-volatile” Storage

  • Floppy Disk (400K - 1.44M)

    • portable media, very low capacity, very slow, outdated

  • Higher Density Disks & Cartridges (>2.6G)

    • portable media, moderate speed & capacity, outdated

    • ex: Zip (100, 250, 750MB), Jaz, Syquest

  • Hard Drive (> 500G)

    • Internal (non-portable) or External (portable)

    • High speed, high capacity

  • Tape Drive (>200G - used for backup)

    • portable media, used mainly for backup, not widely used

    • Slow non-random access, high capacity

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Flash Memory Solid-State - "Non-volatile”

  • Flash Memory Cards

    • Capacities > 1GB

    • Very Small and Portable, Moderate to High Speed

    • Common in Digital Cameras & Handheld Devices

    • Generally Require Card Reader

  • “Flash Drives” and “Memory Sticks”

    • Capacities > 2GB

    • Very Small and Portable, Moderate to High Speed

    • Commonly Plug Directly into USB Port

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Solid-State Drive (SSD) Solid-State - "Non-volatile”

  • Use either Flash Memory or Battery-backed RAM

  • May be used as replacement for standard “Mechanical” Hard Drive

  • Capacities > 100GB

  • Very Fast - Faster than standard Hard Drive

  • More Resistant to Shock than standard Hard Drive

  • Currently More Expensive than standard Hard Drive

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Compact Disc (CD)Optical - “Non-volatile”

  • Up to 700 MB data - (80 min. audio)

  • Drive Speeds - 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 24x,52x, etc.

  • Various Formats - ISO-9660, Joliet, Mac HFS, PhotoCD, Audio, etc.

  • Standard CD-ROM = Read Only - Recorded at factory.

  • CD-R = Recordable - But cannot be erased / rewritten.

  • CD-RW = Rewritable - Can be erased / rewritten.

  • Slide 22 of 34


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    Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)Optical - “Non-volatile”

    (also called “Digital Video Disc”)

    • Physically the size of a CD.

    • Denser, Multi-layer technology.

    • High storage capacity.

    • Often used for Video.

    • DVD-R, +R (recordable), -RW, +RW (rewritable)

    • DVD: Single-sided single-layer > 4.7 GB

    • DVD DL: Single-sided dual layer > 8.5 GB

    • HD DVD (outdated): Single-sided dual layer > 30 GB

    • Blu-ray Disc: Single-sided dual layer > 50 GB

    Slide 23 of 34


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    Disk Formatting

    • Erases the entire disk.

    • Records index marks which determine where and how data will be stored on the disk (sets up tracks and sectors).

    • Storage Layout - Generally determined by computer operating system's disk access method.

    Slide 24 of 34


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    Operating System (OS)

    • A Control Program which manages the software and hardware resources and establishes a consistent application interface.

    • Generally determines the look and feel of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the file manipulation and transfer protocols.

    • Usually loaded to RAM (booted) from the hard drive upon startup. It may also be loaded from a "Bootable" System CD or DVD instead.

    Slide 25 of 34


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    System Compatibility

    • Different platforms have different operating systems which are generally not compatible.

      • (MS-DOS, Mac OS, Unix)

    • The same platform may have different operating systems available for it which may not be compatible.

      • Mac >> MacOS 8.6, MacOS 9.1, MacOS X

      • PC >> DOS, Win 98, NT, ME, XP, Vista

    • Newer Macs with Intel Processor have ability to run MacOS, Linux, and Windows.

    Slide 26 of 34


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    Cross-Platform Transfer

    • Some computer platforms have the ability to read data from disks formatted on other platforms.

      • (Macs can read PC formatted disks).

    • To utilize data from another platform, an application must be available which is capable of interpreting that data.

      • (PowerPoint on a Mac can read PC PowerPoint files and vice-versa)

    Slide 27 of 34


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    Computing "Power”What Determines a Computer's "Power"?

    • FLOPS

      • "flops" (floating-point operations per second) along with a standard benchmark is a method of comparing computer performance.

      • 1 Gigaflop = One Billion Floating-point Ops/Sec

    • Processor Speed

      • The higher the processor's clock rate, the more operations it can perform per second.

      • Rates measured in "Megahertz" (MHz) or “Gigahertz” (GHz).

      • 1 GHz = One Billion Clock Cycles per Second.

      • Current Microprocessors run at over 2 GHz.

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    • Processor Efficiency and Data Width

      • A more efficient processor gets more done per clock cycle.

      • A Backside Cache provides high speed short-term data storage on the Processor chip.

      • A wider and faster data path (bus) means more data can be moved from one place to another in a given amount of time.

        • Current microprocessors = 32, 64 or 128 bits wide.

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    • Available RAM and RAM Speed

      • More RAM provides more available storage space for opened applications and documents.

      • Data can be moved to and from (solid-state) RAM faster than to other (mechanical) storage devices such as hard drives. So with more RAM, more data is quickly accessible while the computer is working.

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    • Available Hard Drive and Access Time

      • A higher-capacity hard drive provides more "non-volatile" storage space for applications and data.

      • Drives with shorter access times and faster transfer rates make data available quicker - which is important for smooth running digital video and other multimedia applications.

      • A Solid-State Drive (SSD) may be used in place of a standard mechanical Hard Drive to improve speed and resistance to vibration.

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    • Graphics Card

      • A Graphics Card improves the computer's graphics capabilities.

      • Dedicated processing of graphics enhances the speed and resolution of display for video and animation applications.

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    • Ports and expandability

      • A variety of expansion ports and additional card slots allow for the connection of various additional equipment options and expanded networking capabilities.

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    Related LinksFor more info check out:

    • How Stuff Works Site - Computers


    • Wikipedia


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